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Having witnessed deteriorating conditions in various sectors for over a decade, the Russian Government has gradually began to regain control since the middle of the s. This policy has led to a growing differentiation between universities and greater social inequality. Education funding in Vietnam: behind the scenes Nolwen Henaff Vietnam is often presented as an example of an education system which reconciles quality with low cost.

The Government is often accused of passing on the cost of education to parents, whose contribution to educational costs is constantly increasing. Education in Thailand: economic growth is not enough Sandrine Michel Since the Asian economies began to emerge in the s, education has been the basis of this development. The undeniable results and the way the countries have developed has shaped the perception of their educational performance.

However, this educational development has its limits, in view of their international specialisations and the impact on society of the generalisation of education now achieved. Using Thailand as a case study, this article investigates the sustainable nature of this educational development model in the long-term. The challenges of decentralisation Funding education in Pakistan Nadeem Kayani Pakistan is faced with the challenge of educating its population.

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This challenge has become urgent, with the introduction of constitutional changes which provide for compulsory education for all children aged 5 to The generation of resources, financial transfers, budget allocations and public spending on education are the different obstacles that prevent the country from providing better public sector education. While there is a trend towards decentralised and delegated governance and financial management, the provinces are encouraged to fund education and to spend more to offer better education at local level.

Increasing the role of the private sector and decision making by the stakeholders should help to solve the problems the educational sector faces. It dedicates a very considerable share of its resources to education, for which it receives substantial external aid. Most of this aid is controlled by the public authorities and directed towards national priorities. Although the country prioritises basic education, it is also making efforts to develop secondary education and, to a lesser extent, higher education, which conditions the duality of basic education.


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Thailand has stayed in peace for decades and the constitution of Thailand in stipulated the basic rights to access to free basic education of 12 years and given the equal right to have free education UNESCO, Despite of making a significant progress in providing education, the disparity in access still remained mainly in the poor household, rural areas and remote regions that have been addressed into the national policies.

The improving the quality of teaching and learning has been the challenge for the current and future of Thai education. Thailand has increased the national budget for education reform and development that has a significant impact on the quality of education system. Then it continued fluctuated over the last 10 years. This expense is mainly aimed at raising quality of education to the international standard lever, education innovative technology and also the primary education that offer equal access for all across the country.

However, the current education reform has implemented new organizational structure, promoted decentralization of administration, innovative learner-centered teaching practice UNESCO, See Figure 7. There are eight core subjects form the National Curriculum: Thai language, mathematics, science, social studies, religion and culture, health and physical education, arts, careers and technology, and foreign languages.

The main instruction is in Thai and the overall aims are to to integrate the curriculum with the local wisdom and culture consistent with set learning standards in each of the core subject groups. In 21st century of education, Thailand has focused on learning reform in accordant to the National Act that moved toward student-centered approach and student-centered classroom.

Regarding this issue, the attention and resource for promoting Thai teachers to reach their potential skills that effectively engages their student self-learning MoE, The government has tried to ensure the people equally get access to education by implementing the decentralization of educational management to the local institutions. It empowered the local decision making on education finance and administration, mainly on the basic education and core curriculum development UNESCO, The access to pre-school, primary and lower secondary is still moderately high and the primary education is getting universalized.

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However, there have been a proportion in subsector from pre-school to non-formal and informal education who have limited access, specially children from low economic status, remote areas, migrant workers, urban migrants without house registration. Recently, the government has prioritized the primary and secondary education in term of developing quality and standard. Also, the expanding basic educational opportunity to all Thai people and improving the quality of teaching personal were on the top prioritized policies. At the same time, numerous efforts had been made by the government to promote the basic education enrollment to meet the EFA goal by See Figure 8.

However, UNESCO reported Thailand still face major challenges with out-of-school rate, mainly for vulnerable group such as children of migration workers, urban migration workers without house registration and ethnic communities in remote area to benefit from this universal policy. Moreover, the quality of education is a crucial concern when students consistently failed the national test from primary to upper secondary school in readings, mathematics, science and foreign languages. The national examination showed the unsatisfactory performance regarding the lack of qualified teachers, incentive for excellent performed teachers.

Also, the lack of learning material for information and technology in remote areas and large number of small-class size in secondary schools was relatively high. This showed that the geographic location is the relation to wide disparities in educational success of students.

Thailand was reported to be in the ten countries with highest increase in out-of-school rate among school children. See Figure 9. Figure 9: The ten countries with the highest relative increases in out-of-school populations Source: UNESCO b, p This table showed the 10 countries with largest relative increase in out-of-school rates from to OECD stated that current problem is mostly concerned with out-of-school number and universal primary education have encountered with unequal chances for the poor, children from lower income and especially with remote area.

Despite of the active policy has been fostered by the government with education loans to the poor students, the short-term financial constrain is not able to eliminate inequalities.

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To cope with this, the government has introduced year free education policy in as another good step toward better education solution. However, there are still many students living in poverty, not being able to attend schools and owing financial difficulties other than the cost of school enrollment. However, there are some costs that are unavoidable in order to participate fully in education. The funding is allocated to schools, where selection committees have to decide on the eligibility of individual pupils. A sensitization campaign has been conducted and complaints from parents addressed to the administration can result in sanctions for the schools involved.

There are some school-related costs that do not influence the quality of the teaching process, such as the school uniform. In many countries school uniforms, however, cost as much as or more than the relevant school equipment. In the context of the educational expansion campaign, the rules on school uniforms have already been imposed in Thailand.

Students are required to bring with them only plain rice and get other food at school. Teachers admit that food quality may not be ideal but there is a trade off with more quantity so everyone will have a chance to have them for free. Parents may not give the children enough to eat at home, especially for breakfast, expecting them to have a big lunch at school. They may have to leave home early for the work and give the children some cash to take care of their own breakfast. Targeted financial aid to students: the government offered financial aid in the form of student grant and loan schemes.

In , the Thai government with support from the ADB Social Sector Programme Loan have introduced grants for pupils in primary and lower secondary education, targeted at dropouts who returned to school in the next academic year as well as students whose parents were severely affected by the crisis. The amount of the grant is a lump sum of USD for primary school pupils and at secondary level. Moreover, beside tuition fees and grant, transportation cost, which is not covered by the new policy, is a major cost of attending school, especially for poor students living far away from the schools.

Vocational and Technical Education Formal: vocational and technical education is conducted at three levels: 1 upper secondary leading to the Lower Certificate of Vocational Education, 2 post secondary leading to a Diploma or Vocational Associate Degree and 3 university level leading to a Degree. Currently there have been over 1 million students enrolled in the various fields such as: agriculture, trade and industry, fisheries, home economics, business and tourism, textiles and commerce arts and crafts.


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This reform has been implemented to remodel the vocation system toward Thai Vocational Qualification to meet the industrial practice and demand on the labor market MoE, Presentation of the Result This study attempted to examine the education polices between the two countries on how to achieve the EFA goals and to improve their education system. It can be noticed that the governments of Cambodia and Thailand put a great emphasis on enhancing equal access to education by identifying the problems and set out various policies responding to the limitations. Based on the literature review, the study have discussed on number of issues that can be compared.

See Table 1. However, Thailand has pursued the reform of its education system through decentralization, universalization of basic education, expanding capacity for upper secondary school and ensuring opportunities for life-long learning for all people. This financial allocation to the education sector provides a clear indicator of the government commitment to improve the education system. The current education system in both countries pulled number of students to schools. The net enrollments have increased significantly at primary school level.

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With this report, Cambodia and Thailand have showed effort in creating opportunities for children across countries and they are on the way to achieve the EFA in Most interestingly, both countries have abolished the school fee in by adding this policies to law of education. Therefore, education became the human right in which children have equal chances to attend school.

This new imposed law has a great impact on children to access school and continue their study to the next levels, particularly it helps to narrow the gate between gender disparity in basic education. For some cases in Thailand, the grant for travel and uniformed have been offered to ensure the financial security of the poor family in somewhat preventing the child labor while they have their rights to at least finish basic education. The study noticed that Cambodia experienced the remarkable dropout rate despite of its success in enrollment due the internal inefficiency of the education system and the exclusive poor communities in the remote areas.

Education in Asia: a comparative study of cost and financing

That was the significant transformation from primary school to secondary school that showed the big gap for the success of compulsory 9-year education in Cambodia. However, Thailand has face the similar problem but it was a low dropout rate during the transition. The most critical issue for Thailand is the out-of- school population that reported to be one of the top countries that increase the out of school children in the region.

The government has put effort in dealing with this issues and UNESCO stated that the children who are out of school do not mean they have never entered school. To learn more about Copies Direct watch this short online video. Need help? How do I find a book? Can I borrow this item?


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