Fluid Mechanics 7th ed - Frank M. White McGraw-Hill, White Other Purdue Univefeity. ALAN T. Purdue University. Manhattan College www. G r u p o k-t-dra. Diagonal 85A No. Tefefonos: B Young, Bruce R. Munson, Theodore H. Okiishi and Wade W.
Modules - Department of Mechanical Engineering
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Fluid Mechanics by Frank White (2010, Hardcover / DVD, Student Edition of Textbook)
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Similar Items Related Subjects: 4 Fluid dynamics. Pipe is generally manufactured to one of several international and national industrial standards. Many industrial and government standards exist for the production of pipe and tubing. The term "tube" is also commonly applied to non-cylindrical sections, i.
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In general, "pipe" is the more common term in most of the world, whereas "tube" is more widely used in the United States. Both "pipe" and "tube" imply a level of rigidity and permanence, whereas a hose or hosepipe is usually portable and flexible. Pipe assemblies are almost always constructed with the use of fittings such as elbows, tees, and so on, while tube may be formed or bent into custom configurations.
For materials that are inflexible, cannot be formed, or where construction is governed by codes or standards, tube assemblies are also constructed with the use of tube fittings. Additionally, pipe is used for many purposes that do not involve conveying fluid. Handrails , scaffolding and support structures are often constructed from structural pipe , especially in an industrial environment. There are three processes for metallic pipe manufacture.
Centrifugal casting of hot alloyed metal is one of the most prominent process. Seamless SMLS pipe is formed by drawing a solid billet over a piercing rod to create the hollow shell. As the manufacturing process does not include any welding, seamless pipes are perceived to be stronger and more reliable. Historically, seamless pipe was regarded as withstanding pressure better than other types, and was often more available than welded pipe.
Advances since the s in materials, process control, and non-destructive testing, allow correctly specified welded pipe to replace seamless in many applications.
The weld flash can be removed from both inner and outer surfaces using a scarfing blade. The weld zone can also be heat-treated to make the seam less visible.
Welded pipe often have tighter dimensional tolerances than the seamless type, and can be cheaper to manufacture. There are a number of processes that may be used to produce ERW pipes. Each of these processes leads to coalescence or merging of steel components into pipes. Electric current is passed through the surfaces that have to be welded together; as the components being welded together resist the electric current, heat is generated which forms the weld. Pools of molten metal are formed where the two surfaces are connected as a strong electric current is passed through the metal; these pools of molten metal form the weld that binds the two abutted components.
ERW pipes are manufactured from the longitudinal welding of steel. The welding process for ERW pipes is continuous, as opposed to welding of distinct sections at intervals. ERW process uses steel coil as feedstock.
In this process, the current to weld the pipe is applied by means of an induction coil around the tube. There are two technologies that can be used to manufacture steel pipes of sizes larger than the steel pipes that can be produced by seamless and ERW processes. LSAW are made by bending and welding wide steel plates and most commonly used in oil and gas industry applications.
Due to their high cost, LSAW pipes are seldom used in lower value non-energy applications such as water pipelines.
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SSAW pipes are produced by spiral helicoidal welding of steel coil and have a cost advantage over LSAW pipes, as the process uses coils rather than steel plates. Tubing for flow, either metal or plastic, is generally extruded. Pipe is made out of many types of material including ceramic , glass , fiberglass , many metals , concrete and plastic. In the past, wood and lead Latin plumbum , from which comes the word ' plumbing ' were commonly used. Typically metallic piping is made of steel or iron, such as unfinished, black lacquer steel, carbon steel , stainless steel , galvanized steel , brass , and ductile iron.
Iron based piping is subject to corrosion if used within a highly oxygenated water stream. Copper tubing is popular for domestic water potable plumbing systems; copper may be used where heat transfer is desirable i.
SOLUTIONS MANUAL: Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics, 7th Edition by
Inconel , chrome moly , and titanium steel alloys are used in high temperature and pressure piping in process and power facilities. When specifying alloys for new processes, the known issues of creep and sensitization effect must be taken into account. Lead piping is still found in old domestic and other water distribution systems, but is no longer permitted for new potable water piping installations due to its toxicity. Many building codes now require that lead piping in residential or institutional installations be replaced with non-toxic piping or that the tubes' interiors be treated with phosphoric acid.
According to a senior researcher and lead expert with the Canadian Environmental Law Association , " In the US it's estimated that 6. Plastic tubing is widely used for its light weight, chemical resistance, non-corrosive properties, and ease of making connections. In many countries, PVC pipes account for most pipe materials used in buried municipal applications for drinking water distribution and wastewater mains. Pipe may be made from concrete or ceramic , usually for low-pressure applications such as gravity flow or drainage.
Pipes for sewage are still predominantly made from concrete or vitrified clay. Reinforced concrete can be used for large-diameter concrete pipes.
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This pipe material can be used in many types of construction, and is often used in the gravity-flow transport of storm water. Usually such pipe will have a receiving bell or a stepped fitting, with various sealing methods applied at installation. These tests can be used to prove that the alloy conforms to various specifications e.
Maintaining the traceability between the alloy material and associated MTR is an important quality assurance issue. QA often requires the heat number to be written on the pipe. Precautions must also be taken to prevent the introduction of counterfeit materials. Pipe sizes can be confusing because the terminology may relate to historical dimensions. For example, a half-inch iron pipe does not have any dimension that is a half inch.
As technology improved, thinner walls became possible, but the outside diameter stayed the same so it could mate with existing older pipe, increasing the inner diameter beyond half an inch.