Guide Geotechnical Design Manual M 46-03.02

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Forworkthatdoesordoesnotrequirecertifcationbyaprofessionalengineer, butdoesrequirecertifcationbyalicensedengineeringgeologist LEG ,such workalsoshallbeperformedby,orunderthedirectsupervisionof,aperson licensedtoperformsuchworkinthestateofWashington,whoisqualifedby educationorexperienceinthistechnicalspecialtyperWAC Theinvestigationforthisphaseusuallyconsists ofafeldreconnaissancebythegeotechnicaldesignerandareviewofthe existingrecords,geologicmaps,andsoforth.

Forprojectsthatlacksignifcant geotechnicalinformationorarecomplex,somesoilboringsmaybedrilledat criticallocationsfordevelopmentoftheprojectdefnitionwithapprovalofthe StateGeotechnicalEngineer. Akeyroleofthegeotechnicaldesignerinthisstageofaprojectistoidentify potentialfatalfawswiththeproject,potentialconstructabilityissues,and geotechnicalhazardssuchasearthquakesourcesandfaults,liquefaction, landslides,rockfall,andsoftground,forexample.

Thegeotechnicaldesigner shallprovideconceptualhazardavoidanceormitigationplanstoaddressall theidentifedgeotechnicalissues. Anassessmentoftheeffectgeotechnical issueshaveonconstructionstagingandprojectconstructabilitymustbemade atthistime. Futuregeotechnicaldesignservicesneededintermsoftime,cost, and the need for special permits to perform the geotechnical investigation criticalareasordinances ,aredeterminedatthistime.

Oncethepreliminaryprojectelementsandalignmentsforthe projectareestablished,thegeotechnicaldesignerwillassessfeasiblecutand fllslopestoenabletheRegionorcivilconsultanttoestablishtheright-of-way needsfortheproject. Wherewallsmaybeneeded,usingapproximatewall locationsandheightsidentifedbytheRegion,anassessmentoffeasiblewall typesisperformedbythegeotechnicaldesigner,primarilytoestablishright- of-wayandeasementneeds asistrueforslopes. Detailed recommendationsforthestagingandconstructabilityoftheproject geotechnicalfeaturesarealsoprovided. Asaresultofthisexecutivedecision,theHQMaterialsLaboratorywas directedtobeginobtainingstaffwithspecializedgeotechnicalexpertiseand tomaintainthatspecializedexpertise.

Theregionsweredirectedtoretainthe RegionMaterialsEngineerposition,andthatRegionMaterialsstaffbetrained intheareaofsoilstothedegreepossibletobeabletofunctionasaneffective liaisonwiththeHQMaterialsLaboratorygeotechnicalpersonnel. TheStateGeotechnicalEngineeristhefnalapprovalauthority forgeotechnicalpolicy,andforgeotechnicalinvestigationsanddesigns conductedstatewideforWSDOTprojects.

TheStateGeotechnical Engineerisalsothefnalapprovalauthorityregardinggeotechnicaldesigns conductedbyothers e. Ifthe geotechnicalworkrequiredisrelativelystraightforward inthattheground isstableandrelativelyfrm,bedrockisnotinvolved,thedesignisnot complicatedbyhighgroundwaterorseepage,andthedesignoftheproject geotechnicalelementsdoesnotrequirespecializedgeotechnicaldesign expertise ,theRMEtakestheleadinconductingthegeotechnicalwork.

TheRMEsfunctionastheinitialpointofcontactforgeotechnical workintheirrespectiveregionsinthattheRMEwillbeevaluatingthe projectsincludedintheconstructionprogramwithintheirrespectiveregions atthebeginningofthedesignphaseforthoseprojects,anddecidingifthe natureoftheworkincludedinthoseprojectswillrequireHQGeotechnical Divisioninvolvementanddesignsupport.

Similarly,duringtheproject defnitionphase,theRMEfunctionsastheinitialpointofcontactregarding geotechnicalissues. Ifitappearsthenatureofthegeotechnicalissuesthat needtobeaddressedtodevelopanaccurateprojectdefnitionwillrequire HQGeotechnicalDivisionassistance,theRMEisresponsibletocontactthe HQGeotechnicalDivisiontoobtaingeotechnicalinputfortheproject. ForgeotechnicalworkthatisclearlytheresponsibilityoftheRMEto completebasedonFigure,theRMEshouldcompletethegeotechnical subsurfacesiteinvestigationplan,performthedesign,andcompletetheregion soilsreport.

Forthoseregionsthatdonothavetheresources i. Iftheresultsofthesiteinvestigationdemonstratethatthe projectgeotechnicaldesignisstillaRMEresponsibility,thedatafromthe siteinvestigationwillbeprovidedtotheRMEandtheRMEwillcomplete thegeotechnicaldesignandreport. If,duetothenatureoftheprojectorthe potentialsubsurfaceconditions,itisnotclearifthedesignwillbeaHQor regionresponsibility,theRMEshouldcontacttheHQGeotechnicalDivision forassistanceinplanning,andifnecessarytocarryout,thegeotechnical investigationanddesign.

Asageneralguide,granularsoilsclassifedas looseorveryloose i. Forthecaseofslopefailure includingretainingwalls androckfallevents,andslopefailurecausedby foodingorearthquakes,thefollowingprocessshouldbeused: 1. Oncethefailureoccurs,RegionMaintenanceconductsaninitial evaluationofthesite.

Ifthereisanyquestionastothestabilityoftheaffectedslopeandthe potentialforfutureslopemovementorrockfall,theRegionMaintenance OffceshouldcontacttheRegionalMaterialsEngineer RME. Ifitisdeterminedthatadetailed geotechnicalevaluationbytheHQGeotechnicalDivisionisnotneeded e. Ifitisdeterminedthatthereisarealthreatofcontinuedslopemovement, instability,orrockfall,therearegeologicalcomplexitiesatthesitethatwill requireamoredetailedgeotechnicalanalysistoassessthepotentialthreat, orifanengineeredslopestabilitymitigationmayberequired,theRME immediatelycontactstheHQGeotechnicalDivisiontocompletetheinitial evaluation.

TheHQGeotechnicalDivisionspecialist s respondsassoonaspossible andcomestositetomakeaninitialassessment. Thespecialistprovides theRegion onsite withthatassessmentandtherisk s associatedwith thatassessment. Theassessmentincludesevaluationofthecause s ofthe instability,thepotentialforfutureinstability,whetherornotthethreatof futureinstabilityisimmediate,thepotentialthreattopublicandworker safety,andtheneedforslopestabilizationmeasures. TheRegion typicallyaprojectoffce shouldusethefeld recommendationsprovidedbytheHQGeotechnicalDivisionspecialist tobegindevelopingascopeofworkandcostestimatetocomplete theemergencyworkconcurrentlywithHQGeotechnicalDivision managementreviewofthefeldrecommendations,andwillimmediately contact the region if any changes in the recommendations are needed as a resultofthetechnicalreviewoftherecommendations.

Basedontheassessmentandrecommendations,theRegionevaluates risk s andcosttomitigatetheproblem. TheRegionthenmakesa decisiontoeitherimmediatelyrepairtheslopeandfacility,openingup thefacilitytothepublic,ortoclose,maintainclosure,orotherwiselimit facilitypublicaccess. Oncestabilizationrecommendationsaredeveloped,theslopeisstabilized, andthefacilityisreopened. Duringthestabilizationconstruction activities,thepointofcontacttoaddressanyproblemsthatoccurandto reviewtheacceptabilityofthefnishedstabilizationmeasuresistheoffce whodevelopedthestabilizationrecommendations.

Sincemultipleactivitiesconductedbyseveraloffcesmustoccur simultaneouslytoaddressanemergencyslopeproblem,frequent stakeholdermeetingsorconferencecallsshouldbeconductedthroughout thedurationoftheemergencyproject designandconstruction tokeep allstakeholdersinformedandtomakeintermediatedecisionsasneeded.

Thesestakeholdermeetingsorconferencecallsshouldoccuratkey juncturesinthedevelopmentoftheproject,orasneededbasedonthe specifcneedsanddurationoftheproject. Floodorseismiceventscanalsoresultinemergencyconditionsthatneed geotechnicalevaluation. Otherthantheslopestabilityissuesaddressed above,sucheventscanaffecttheintegrityofbridgesandotherstructures.

In thesesituations,otherthankeepingtheRMEinformedofthesituation,the processforgeotechnicalevaluationprimarilyinvolvestheBridgeOffce. Inthese cases,theprocessisgenerallyasfollows: 1. Oncethefailureorstructuredistressoccursandbecomesknown,the BridgeOffce orWSFformarineandterminalwork conductsaninitial evaluationofthestructure. Ifthereisdamageorpotentialdamagetothestructurefoundation,the BridgeoffceorWSFcontactstheHQGeotechnicalDivisiontoconduct aninitialevaluationtoassesstheproblem,identifypotentialriskstothe structureandthepublic,anddeveloppreliminarysolutions.

Basedonthisinitialevaluation,theBridgeOffce,inconcertwiththe Region,orWSFinthecaseofmarineorterminalfacilities,determines whetherornottorestrictpublicaccess,ortoclosethefacility,andwhether or not to proceed with a more complete geotechnical investigation to developarepairorreplacementforthestructurefoundation. Ifitisdeterminedthatamorecompletegeotechnicalinvestigationis needed,theHQGeotechnicalDivisionproceedswiththeinvestigationand developsdesignrecommendations. Ingeneral,thePMPincludesfvemain steps. Priortoorduringtheinitiateandalignstep,theprojectmanagershould contacttheRMEtodetermineifthenatureoftheprojectcouldrequireHQ GeotechnicalDivisioninvolvement.

Notethatatthispoint,detailedprojectsitedatawilllikelynotbe available. Therefore,thisdeterminationbytheRMEwilllikelyneedtobe madebasedonconceptualprojectdata,andpossiblyaprojectsitereview. Onceincludedintheteam,thegeotechnicalPMPteammember ingeneral, thisindividualisalsothegeotechnicaldesignerfortheproject should,as aminimum,participateintheInitiateandAligneffortstoprovideinput regardingrolesandresponsibilities,boundaries,andmeasuresofsuccess. Thiswould includeadetailedanalysisofhowlongitwilltaketoperformthegeotechnical tasksneededtocompletetheproject,anyindividualtaskdependenciesthat affecttasksequencingandtheinterrelationshipbetweenthegeotechnical tasksandtaskstobecompletedbyotherteammembers,andhowmuchitwill costtocompletethosetasks.

ItistheresponsibilityofthegeotechnicalPMP teammembertocoordinatetheresourceneedsforthesubjectprojectwiththe resourceneedsofotherprojectsthatrequiregeotechnicalinput,sothatthe proposedprojectdeliveryschedulecanbeachieved. ThegeotechnicalPMP teammemberwillalsocoordinatewiththeprojectteamandwiththeHQ GeotechnicalDivisionmanagementregardingthedecisiontousegeotechnical consultants,ifrequiredtoachievethedesiredprojectschedulemilestones.

ThegeotechnicalPMPteammemberalsoprovidestechnicaloversightofand coordinationwithanygeotechnicalconsultantsbeingusedfortheproject. ThegeotechnicalPMPteammembershouldalsoprovideinputtotheteam regardingpotentialrisksorchangesinthegeotechnicalareathatcouldaffect projectschedule,budget,orscope,andprovideastrategytodealwiththose risksorchanges. Examplesofgeotechnicalriskincludepotentialdiffculties ingettingdrillingpermitsorright-of-entry,uncertaintiesinthescopeofthe geotechnicalinvestigationrequiredduetounknownsubsurfaceconditions, mitigationofunstableground,liquefactionorotherseismichazards,etc.

ThegeotechnicalPMPteammembershouldalsoprovidetheteamwithaplan regardinghowgeotechnicalinvestigationanddesignquality,aswellashow theaccuracyofgeotechnicaldesignscheduleandbudget,willbeassured. In thisstep,thegeotechnicalaspectsoftheProjectManagementPlanshould beendorsedbythemanagementoftheoffceresponsibletocarryoutthe geotechnicalwork e. The frequencyofreportingtotheteamontheprogressoftheworkisidentifed intheCommunicationPlanandshouldbedecidedbasedontheneedsofthe project,recognizingthatexcessiveprogressreportingcan,initself,impact thescheduleandbudgetfortheworkduetothetimeittakestodevelopthe interimreports.

Asproblemsorchangesoccurintheproject,thegeotechnical PMPteammemberassiststheprojectteamtoaddressthoseproblemsor changes. Ingeneralforthisstep,thegeotechnicalPMPteammembercompletes, orarrangesforthecompletion,ofthegeotechnicalreportfortheproject, andassiststheteaminthedevelopmentofcontractdocumentsneededto constructtheproject.

ThegeotechnicalPMPteammember shouldalsomakethegeotechnicalprojectflereadyforlong-termstorage, makingsurethatifanothergeotechnicaldesignermustworkontheproject, thatthecalculationsandlogicforthedecisionsmadeareeasytofollow. For manydeliverables,theregionProjectOffcewillneedtoprovideinformation beforethegeotechnicalworkcanbegin. Themasterdeliverablesprovidedin TablearecurrentasofAugust Notethatforthebigger,morecomplexprojectswheresomelimitedtest holedrillingmaybeneeded,thistaskwouldalsorequiretheprojectoffce toobtain,ortomakearrangementstoobtain,drillingpermitsandright-of- entry.

IfitappearsthatHQGeotechnicalDivisioninvolvementmayberequired, theRMEshouldmakearrangementstohaveaHQGeotechnicalDivision representativeincludedinthegeotechnicalworktocompletetheproject defnitionasdiscussedpreviously. Eachoffcethatisinvolvedprovidesinput dataforthesedeliverablesintermsoftimeandcosttocompletethetask,and thedeliverablesthemselves. Ifbothoffcesareinvolved,theregionProject Offcewillneedtoaddthecostrequiredtoaccomplishtheworkfromboth offcestoobtainthetotalcostforeachtask.

Regarding theConceptualGeotechnicalReport,uptotworeportsmayneedtobe produced,onefortheRMEworkandonefortheHQGeotechnicalDivision work,ifbothoffcesneedtobeinvolvedinthisprojectphaseforthegiven project. See Design Manual Chapter Some soil borings may be drilled at this time depending upon project scope and available information. There is a possibility of multiple reports, depending upon the scope and complexity of the project. Thistaskwouldalsorequirethe projectoffcetoobtain,ortomakearrangementstoobtain,drillingpermits andright-of-entry,ifthenecessarypermitswerenotobtainedinWBScode PC Typically,threelevelsofreviewareconductedateachoftheseproject junctures:adetailedreviewbytheimmediatesupervisor whoislicensed andatotherintermediatetimesasneededtoguidethedesign,adetailed reviewbytheChiefFoundationEngineerorChiefEngineeringGeologist, andaspotcheckreviewandreviewforconsistencywithdesignpolicy andstandardsofpracticebytheStateGeotechnicalEngineer.

TheState GeotechnicalEngineermaydelegatefnalreviewauthoritytothechiefor seniorlevel. Forthesubsurfaceinvestigationplan,formalreviewbythe StateGeotechnicalEngineerisgenerallynotrequired. Aminimumofone level of review by a licensed professional with the necessary geotechnical orengineeringgeologyexperiencemustbeconductedinallcases,however. Designrecommendationsincludethosethatareconsideredfnal,and those that are considered preliminary if the preliminary recommendations willresultinsignifcantdesigneffortbeingexpendedbythosewhousethe recommendationstoperformtheirdesigns,oriftheycouldotherwiseendup beingtreatedasfnalrecommendations.

Forthosedesignrecommendations thatareclearlyidentifedasbeingpreliminaryandsubjecttochange,and forwhichallpartiesreceivingthoserecommendationsfullyunderstand thattherecommendationsaresubjecttochangeandareonlytobeused forpreliminaryalternativeandscopedevelopmentpurposes withthe exceptionofEISdisciplinereports,criticalareaordinancereports,orsimilar documents ,fnalreviewauthorityisdelegatedtotheChiefFoundation EngineerandChiefEngineeringGeologistlevel. Someprojectsrequiresignifcantinputbybothengineeringgeologistsand foundationengineers e. Thesignature oftheapprovalauthorityindicatesthatthereportormemorandumisin compliancewithWSDOTgeotechnicalstandardsandpolicies.

Thispolicy alsoappliestodesignrecommendationsthataresentoutinformallytoother offces e. Notethatthisapprovalprocess andassociatedconsiderationsalsoapplytoreportsproducedbyconsultants fordevelopersbuildingfacilitiesthatimpactWSDOTfacilities. Geotechnicalconsultantsareusedtohandlepeakloadwork,ortoobtain specializedexpertisenotcontainedwithintheHQGeotechnicalDivision. If ageotechnicalconsultantisneeded,thefrstchoiceistoutilizeaconsultant workingdirectlyfortheHQGeotechnicalDivision,asthecommunication linesaremorestraight-forwardthanwouldbethecaseifthegeotechnical consultantisworkingforaprimeconsultant,whointurnisworkingfor anotheroffceinWSDOT.

Ingeneral,consultantsworkingdirectlyfortheHQGeotechnicalDivision willdosothroughanon-callmasteragreementinwhichtheconsultant isassignedprojectspecifctasks. Throughthesetasks,theconsultantis typicallyresponsibletodevelopthedetailedgeotechnicalinvestigationplan, performthetestinganddesign,andproduceageotechnicalreport. Forthese assignments,theconsultantisviewedasanextensionoftheHQGeotechnical Divisionstaffandisthereforesubjecttothesamestandardsofdesignand reviewasin-housedivisionstaff.

FrequentcommunicationbetweentheHQ GeotechnicalDivisionstaffandtheconsultantisessentialtoasuccessful project. Forthiscontractualscenario,theHQGeotechnicalDivisionis responsibletooverseeandadministertheconsultantagreementandtask assignments. BoththeRegionMaterialsOffceandGeotechnicalDivision mayhavestaffavailabletoperformthegeotechnicaldesignfortheproject. If itisdeterminedthatageotechnicalsubconsultantisneeded,theGeotechnical Division will need to assist in the development of the geotechnical scope and estimatefortheproject,sothattheconsultantcontractisappropriate.

Thesetypicalscopesofworkforgeotechnicalsubconsultants mayneedadjustmentoraugmentationtoadaptthemtothespecifcproject. Ateammeetingbetweentheconsultantteam,theRegionorotherWSDOT Offce dependingonwhoseprojectitis ,andtheHQGeotechnicalDivision isconductedearlyintheprojecttodeveloptechnicalcommunicationlines andrelationships. Goodproactivecommunicationbetweenallmembersof theprojectteamiscrucialtothesuccessoftheprojectduetothecomplex consultant-clientrelationships seeFigure Figure 1. Subconsultant Structural Subconsult. Outdatedorotherwisesupercededgeotechnicalreportsandmemorandums shouldnotbeincludedintheFinalGeotechnicalProjectDocumentation.

Insuchcaseswhereasmallportionofageotechnicalreporthasbeen superceded,theentirereportshouldbeincludedwiththesupercededtext clearlyidentifedalongwiththesupercedingdocument. Reportsproducedby theRMEaregenerallykeptunderseparatecover,butareincludedinthefnal publicationpackageasdescribedbelow. Materials sourcereportsshouldalsobeincludedaspartofthepackagepublishedfor bidders.

Theregionprojectdevelopmentoffce or TerminalEngineeringDepartmentfortheWashingtonStateFerries willalso identify at that time who they have designated to receive the report to handle orcontinuethepublicationprocess. Ingeneral,itisdesirablethatthefnal geotechnicaldocumentationbeavailableforprinting10weekspriortotheAd orShelfDate,butabsolutelymustbeavailablenolaterthantwoFridaysprior totheAdorShelfdate. Whentransmittingthefnalprojectgeotechnicaldocumentation, theHQGeotechnicalDivisionwillspecifcallyidentifythegeotechnical documentationasfnalfortheprojectandascamera-ready.

Likewise,the RegionMaterialsOffcewillconcurrentlysendacamera-readyfnalcopyof anyRegiongeneratedreports e. Bothoftheseitemsare,ingeneral,providedbytheHQGeotechnical Division. Allboringlogsusedasthebasisforthegeotechnicaldesignfortheproject shouldbeincludedinanappendixtothecontract. Alegendsheetthatdefnes thetermsandsymbolsusedintheboringlogsmustalwaysbeincludedwith theboringlogs. TheGeotechnicalDivisionwillprovidealegendforlogsthey haveproduced. Consultantsshallalsoprovidealegendalongwiththeirlogs intheirgeotechnicalreports.

Thelocationsofallboringlogsincludedwiththe contractshouldbeshownonthecontractplansheets. Basedonspecifcprojectneeds,othertypesofgeotechnicaldatamayalso needtobeincludedinthecontractdocuments. Suchadditionaldatamay includegeophysicaltestresults,andsubsurfaceproflesandcross-sections forspecifcgeotechnicalprojectfeatures. Thegoalofsuchdataistoprovide potentialbiddersamorecompletepictureoftheconditionsasnecessaryfor accuratebidding,whenthatinformationcannotbeconveyedbytheboring logsalone.

ASummaryofGeotechnicalConditions,providedbytheGeotechnical Divisionformostprojectsthatcontainsignifcantgeotechnicalfeatures, shouldalsobeincludedinthecontractwiththeboringlogs. Thisdocumentalsodescribestheimpactofthesesubsurface conditionsontheconstructionofthesefoundations,cuts,flls,etc. Disturbed soilsamplesaretypicallyusedforsoilclassifcationpurposes,thoughon occasiontheymaybeusedformoresophisticatedtesting. Undisturbedsoil samplesareprimarilyusedformoresophisticatedtesting,thoughtheymay alsobeusedforevaluationofdetailedlayeringandsoilstructure.

Disturbedandundisturbedsoilsamplesthathave notbeentestedbytheGeotechnicalDivisionorConsultantwillberetainedfor aminimumof90daysafterthegeotechnicalreportiscompleted,afterwhich timetheywillbedisposed. Priortodisposal,Consultantshallcontactthe GeotechnicalDivisionsothattheymaytakepossessionofthesamples,ifthey choosetodoso. Rockcoreisgenerallyretaineduntilaftertheconstructionprojectiscomplete anditisclearthatclaimsrelatedtotherockarenotforthcoming.

After construction,thecorewillbedisposed. Rockcoreobtainedbyconsultants shallbedeliveredtotheGeotechnicalDivisionaspartofthedeliverables associatedwiththeGeotechnicalReport. Rockcoremaybedisposedpriorto projectconstructionifitisdeterminedthattheriskofclaimsrelatedtorock qualityissuesissuffcientlylow,iftherockcoreisdegradedandthereforenot usefulforvisualinspectionortesting,orpossiblyotherreasonsthatcausethe riskofearlycoredisposaltobelow,subjecttotheapprovaloftheWSDOT StateGeotechnicalEngineer. Inallcases,whetherornotearlydisposalofthe coreisconducted,allrockcoreshallbephotographedathighresolutionand incolorcorrectlight,toprovideapermanentrecordofthecore.

Inthechaptersthatfollow,aswellaswithinthischapter,theterms,andtheir defnitions,providedinTableareusedtoconveygeotechnicalpolicy. Term Defnition Shall The associated provisions must be used. There is no acceptable alternative. Should The associated provisions must be used unless strong justifcation is available and provided based on well established regional or national practice, and if backed up by well accepted research results. May The associated provisions are recommended, but alternative methods or approaches that are consistent with the intent of the provisions are acceptable.

Evaluate, evaluated, address, or addressed The associated issue must be evaluated or addressed through detailed analysis and the results documented. Consider, considered The associated recommended provisions must be evaluated, and the reasons and analyses used to decide whether or not to implement the recommended provisions must be documented. Geotechnical designer The geotechnical engineer or engineering geologist who has been given responsibility to coordinate and complete the geotechnical design activities for the project Terms used to convey geotechnical policy.

Table 1. Thedivisionof workshowninFigureappliestoconstructionassistanceaswell. However, itmustalsoberecognizedthatmostgeotechnicalconstructionproblemsneed tobeaddressedquicklytopreventconstructioncontractimpacts. Tominimize delaysingettinggeotechnicalconstructionproblemsaddressed,ifitisobvious thatHQinputwillberequiredanyway e. Typically, aconstructionprojectgeotechnicaladvisorwillbeassignedtotheprojectand isthefrstpointofcontactforassistancefromtheHQGeotechnicalDivision.

TherearesometypesofgeotechnicalconstructionissuesforwhichtheRME shouldalwaysprovidethefrstresponse. Theseinclude,forexample: Evaluationoffllcompactionproblems; Evaluationofmaterialssourceandborrowproblems; Pavementsubgradeproblems;and Evaluationofthesoilatthebaseofspreadfootingexcavationstocheck forconsistencywithboringlogs. Forevaluationofdifferingsiteconditionsclaims,theHQGeotechnical Divisionshouldalwaysprovidethegeotechnicalevaluationandwillwork directlywiththeHQConstructionOffcetoprovidethegeotechnicalsupport theyneed. Notethatforconsultantdesignedprojects,theHQGeotechnicalDivision mayrequestthatthedesignerofrecord i.

The nextpointofcontact,ifactiononbehalfofthecontractingagency i. Ifitturns outthattheRMEshouldprovidearesponseoriftheRMEcouldprovidea morerapidresponse,consideringthenatureoftheproblem,thegeotechnical advisorwillcontacttheRMEtoenlisttheirassistance. SincethetechnicalsupporttheGeotechnicalDivision providescouldaffecttheconstructioncontract,itisextremelyimportant tocontactHQConstructionassoonaspossibletoletthemknowofthe situation,inadditiontothespecifcregionaloffcesbeingsupported.

Direct communicationanddirectionstothecontractorshouldbeavoided,unless theboundariesofsuchcommunicationhavebeenapprovedinadvance bytheregionprojectoffceandasappropriate,HQConstruction. Any communicationinwriting,includinge-mailcorrespondence,mustbewritten inawaythatcommunicatesonlytechnicalissuesanddoesnotcompromise WSDOTsabilitytoeffectivelyadministerthecontract. Thisisespecially importantifpotentialcontractorclaimsareinvolved. Forexample,withchangedconditionsclaims,theHQ GeotechnicalDivisionsprofessionalevaluationofthesituationshouldfocus ondetermininganddescribingthegeotechnicalconditionsobservedduring constructionincomparisontowhatwasexpectedbasedonthedataavailable attimeofbidding.

TheHQGeotechnicalDivisionisnottodetermineoreven implythemeritsofthecontractorsclaim. Evaluationsofcontractorclaims,aswellasgeotechnicalrecommendationsfor theredesignofageotechnicalelementinacontract,mustbeputinaformal writtenformatsuitableforsealingasdiscussedinWSDOTGDMSection 1. E-mailshouldnotbeusedasacommunicationvehicleforthistypeof information. Furthermore,theStateGeotechnicalEngineer,ortheindividual delegatedtoactonbehalfoftheStateGeotechnicalEngineer,mustreview andapprovesuchdocumentsbeforetheyaredistributed.

Memorandums thatprovideanevaluationofacontractorclaimshouldbeaddressedto theHQConstructionOffce,andacopyshouldnotbesenttotheRegion ProjectEngineerinthiscase. Ifaclaimevaluationisnotinvolved andonlytechnicalrecommendationsinsupportofacontractredesignare beingprovided,addressthelettertotheHQConstructionOffce,withacopy totheRegionProjectOffceandothersasnecessary e. Blasting planandrockslopesubmittals e. Forconstructionsubmittalsthatinvolvestructuresorsupportofstructures orbridgeapproachflls,policiesoncoordinationofsubmittalreviewareas follows: 1.

Proprietaryretainingwallsthathavebeencompletelydetailedinthe ContractPlansandSpecialProvisions includingmanufacturershop plans neednotcometotheBridgeOffceforreview. TheRegionsProject EngineersOffceisresponsibleforthereviewofthecontractorswallsin accordancewiththecontractdocuments. GeosyntheticshoringwallswithoutstructuralfacingdonotrequireBridge Offcereview. These wallsshallbesentdirectlytotheHQGeotechnical Divisionfortheirreview. Toprovideconsistencyinthereviewprocess,the reviewcommentsshouldbesentbacktotheBridgeOffceConstruction SupportUnitinthesamemannerasanyothersubmittalforforwardingto theregionprojectengineer.

Ifgeotechnicalinputisneeded,theConstructionSupportUnitwill coordinatewiththeHQGeotechnicalDivisiontoobtainreviewcomments andwillsubmitthecompiledcommentsfrombothoffcestotheregion projectoffce. TheBridgeOffceConstructionSupportUnitisresponsibleforthe responsebacktotheregionprojectengineer,andshallattachorinclude GeotechnicalDivisioncommentsverbatim. Thegeotechnicaldesignersmainemphasisinreviewoftheshaft submittalsistoensurethattheproposedconstructionprocedurewill resultinashaftthatmeetstheassumptionsusedduringthedesignphase.

Casinglimits,constructionjoints,shaftdiameter s ,andsurfacecasing installation,aswellas,backfllingareareasthattypicallyneedreview. For soldierpiles,substitutionofanotherpilesectionorpossibleover-stressing ofthepileanchorstressingshouldbechecked. Theseitemswillgenerally befaggedbythegeotechnicaldesigner. TheBridgeOffceshallingeneralbetheclearinghousefortransmittalsof submittalreviewsbacktotheregionprojectengineer.

TheGeotechnical DivisionwillreturncommentstotheBridgeOffceonly,exceptwhen previouslyagreedtorespondseparately. Geotechnicalhazards,suchasliquefactionandlandslides, shallbeassessedandthepotentialimpactstotheprojectshallbediscussedfor identifedhazards. Locationsofpotentialcuts,flls,softcompressiblesoils,soilssusceptible toliquefaction,landslides,andfaultsclosetooratthesite.

Preliminarymaximumcutandfllslopeinclinationsshallbe recommendedtoensureoverallstabilityforcutslopes,embankments, structures,andtoprovideabasisforright-of-wayacquisition. Thereport shallalsoindicatewhetherthefoundationbearingcapacitiesare anticipatedtobelow,indicatingmarginalbearingconditions,orhigh, indicatinggoodtoexcellentbearingconditions. Thereportshallincludeavailablesitemaps,crosssections,endareas,and subsurfaceprofles,andtheavailablesubsurfaceinformation. Ingeneral,newsoilboringsare notrequiredforconceptuallevelrecommendationsexceptwheresubsurface informationisnotavailablewithintheprojectlimitsandifprojectelements aregeotechnicallycomplex.

TheGeotechnicalDivisionisavailabletoassist inthedeterminationofwhetherornotboringsarerequired. IftheRegionand theGeotechnicalDivisiondeterminethatboringsarerequiredtoadequately developpreliminaryrecommendations,theGeotechnicalDivisionwillprovide anadditionalsectiontobeincludedinthescopeofworkforthedrillingof newborings.

TheHQGeotechnicalDivisionshouldbecontactedtoprovideacostestimate fortheworkanticipated. TheHQGeotechnicalDivisionestimateshouldbe usedtocompletenegotiationswiththeconsultant. AttheRegionsrequest,the HQGeotechnicalDivisioncanreviewtheconsultantsestimateandprovided guidancefornegotiation. Oncepreliminarygeotechnicalrecommendationsareprovided,theprime ConsultantorRegioncandefnethecivilengineeringportionofthe project. Geotechnicalhazardsshallbeassessedandthepotential impactstotheprojectshallbediscussed.

Liquefaction potentialshallbeassessedandliquefactionmitigationmethodsshallbe providedattheSTATEsrequest. Existingsubsurfaceinformationshallbefullyutilizedandconsidered whenpreparingthefeldexplorationplan. Theresultsofthefeldexplorationandalloftheequipmentusedshallbe summarized. Boringlogswithstation,offset, elevation,groundwaterelevations,uncorrectedSPTtestresultswithblowsper 6inchesshallbeprovided.

Soilunitsencounteredinthefeldexplorationshall bedescribedandtheirextentandlimitsshallbeidentifed. Soilsproflesshall bedevelopedandshownforallstructuresorsignifcantcutandfllslopes. Planviewsshallbepreparedthatshowtheactuallocationsoftheboringsin relationtoprojectelements. Includedshallbethe recommendedinstrumenttypes,locations,installationrequirements, zonesofinfuence,andcriticalreadingsorlevels. Overallstabilityforcutslopes,embankments,andstructuresshallbe assessed. Forstructures,minimumfoundationwidths,embedments, overexcavation,andgroundimprovementshallbeaddressedtosatisfy overallstabilityrequirements.

Maximumcutandfllslopeinclinations shallberecommended. Forstructures,suitablefoundationtypesshallbeassessedandalternate foundationtypesrecommended. Forspreadfootings,allowablebearing capacityandsettlementshallbeprovided. Forseismicdesignofspread footings,ultimatebearingcapacityandshearmodulusvaluesshall beprovidedforstrainlevelsof0.

Forpilesandshafts, ultimatecapacityfguresshallbedevelopedthatshowthecapacityin relationtotipelevationforbothcompressionandtension. Settlement shallbeassessedandgroupreductionfactorsshallberecommended. Minimumtipelevations,casingrequirements,andestimatesof overdriveshallbeprovided. Forpileswithmaximumdriving resistancesoftonsormore,waveequationanalysisshallbe performedtoassessdriveability,pilestress,andhammerrequirements.

Forallwalls includingstandard,preapprovedproprietary,andnon-preapproved proprietarywalls ,bearingcapacity,settlement,construction considerations,andexternalstabilityshallbeaddressed. For non-standard,non-proprietarywalls,internalstabilityshallbe addressed. Earthworkrecommendationsshallbeprovidedincludingsubgrade preparation,materialrequirements,compactioncriteria,andsettlement estimates. Inareaswherecompressiblesoilsareencountered, overexcavation,stagedconstruction,instrumentation,settlement,and creep characteristics and estimates shall be addressed as well as details ofanymitigatingmeasuresneededtokeepembankmentperformance withinprojectconstraints.

Atstreamcrossings,evaluationofalternativesandrecommendations shallbeprovidedforextendingtheexistingculvert,pipejacking anewculvert,installingabottomlessculvert,orconstructingofa bridgestructure. Pipebedding,subgradepreparation,bearingcapacity, andsettlementshallbeaddressed. Forpipejacking,jackingpit constructionshallbeassessedalongwiththepotentialforcavingsoils. Generaldrainage,groundwater,pH,andresistivityvaluesasthey applytotheproject. Forsignals,illumination,andsignstructures,allowablelateralbearing capacityshallbeevaluated. Wherepoorsoilsarepresentdesign recommendationsforspecialdesignfoundationsshallbeprepared.

Theseshalladdressbearingcapacity,lateralcapacity,rotational capacity,settlement,andconstructionofthefoundations. Wherepossible,designrecommendationsshallbeprovidedintabular orgraphicalform. Constr uction Consider ations Constructionconsiderationsshallbeaddressed. Temporaryslopesand shoringlimitsshallbeidentifedforestimatingpurposes. Advisory SpecialProvisionsshallbepreparedforelementsthatmayencounter diffcultgroundconditionsorthatmayrequirenon-typicalconstruction methods.

Construction stagingrequirements,whereapplicable,shallbeaddressed. Wetweather constructionandtemporaryconstructionwatercontrolshallbediscussed. AllrecommendedSpecial Provisionsshallbeincludedinthegeotechnicalreportasanappendix. All detailsnecessaryfordesignandconstructionoftheprojectelementsshall beincludedintheGeotechnicalReportsuchasearthpressurediagrams, overexcavationdetails,walldetails,andstagedconstructiondetails.

InstructionsforPreparationoftheScopeofWorkforProjectSpecifc Application TheGeotechnical Engineer ing Ser vices Scope of Wor k istobeusedwhen thecivilengineeringportionoftheprojectiswelldefnedbeforeconsultant servicesarerequested. RightofWay 2. WetlandBoundariesandlimits 3. Roadwayalignmentsandroadwaysections 4. Retainingwalllocations,profles,crosssections,andaesthetic requirements 5. StructurePreliminaryPlans Therearefll-insthatneedtobecompletedtodesignatewhowillperformthe drillingandsecureRightofEntry.

RegionMaterialsshouldbecontactedto determineavailabilityfordrillingpriortocompletingthefll-in. Geotechnical designforWSDOTprojectsisgenerallyprovidedbytheRegionMaterials EngineerandtheGeotechnicalDivisionorgeotechnicalconsultantsworking eitheronbehalfofthesegroupsoraspartofaconsultantdesignteam. Thischapterincludesgeneralguidelinesforgeotechnicalinvestigations conductedforprojectdefnitionanddesignphases seeGDMSections1.

Toassuresuccessofaproject,itisimportantforthegeotechnicaldesigner tobecomeinvolvedintheprojectatanearlystage. Theusualprocessstarts withstudyingthepreliminaryprojectplans,gatheringexistingsitedata, determiningthecriticalfeaturesoftheproject,andvisitingthesite,preferably withtheprojectandstructuralengineer. Goodcommunicationthroughoutthe projectbetweenthegeotechnicaldesigner,thestructuraldesigner,andthe regionprojectengineerisessential. Aneffortshouldbemade tomaximizetheamountofinformationobtainedduringeachphaseofthe investigationprocessandminimizethenumberofsitevisitsrequiredtoobtain information.

Ifthesubsurfaceexplorationcanbeconductedinphases, itallowsinformationobtainedinthepreliminaryphasetobeusedinplanning theexplorationprogramforthedetaileddesignphase. Thiscanbecost effectiveinmaximizingtheeffciencyoftheexplorationsinthesubsequent phases. Thatis,thelikelydepthsofthetestboringsareknown,problemsoil layerscanbeidentifedandsampledinsubsequentphases,andthelabtesting programcanbeplannedwithgreatereffciency.

Forprojectswheremobilizationcostsfordrillingequipmentarehigh,the numberofsubsurfaceinvestigationphasesshouldbeminimized,evenon fairlylargeprojects. Thestudiesandactivitiesperformedduringtheplanningstageshould bedocumented. Alistofreferencesshouldbedeveloped,citingnearby explorations,notesfromfeldvisitsandconversationswithdesignengineers andconstructionengineersfromnearbyprojects. Anycriticalissuesthat areidentifedduringtheplanningstagesshouldbedocumented,suchas geohazardsthatareidentifed.

Ataminimum,enoughdocumentationshould bemaintainedsothatanotherengineerpickinguptheprojectwouldnothave togothroughthesamesearchforinformation. Locationandsizeofstructures,embankmentsand cutsshouldbedetermined. Discusswiththestructuraldesignerstheamount offexibilityinthelocationofstructuresanddeterminetheapproximate magnitudeoftheloadstobetransmitted.

Siteexplorationbeginsbyidentifyingthemajorgeologicprocessesthathave affectedtheprojectsite. Soilsdepositedbyaparticulargeologicprocess assumecharacteristictopographicfeaturesorlandformsthatcanbereadily identifedbythegeotechnicaldesigner. Alandformcontainssoilswith generallysimilarengineeringpropertiesandtypicallyextendsirregularlyover wideareasofaprojectalignment.

Earlyidentifcationoflandformsisusedto optimizethesubsurfaceexplorationprogram. Many of the soils in the state of Washington fall into geologic provinces with distinctsoiltypestypicaloftheprovince. ForexamplemuchofthePuget Soundlowlandhasbeenglaciated,andthesoilsaretypicallyrelatedtoglacial processes. EasternWashingtongeologygenerallyconsistsofbasaltfows cappedbyglacialfoodandloessdeposits.


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Oneoftheobjectsoftheoffcereviewistoplansitereconnaissanceand prepareaconceptualplanforsubsurfaceexploration. Topographicmapsaregenerallyreadilyavailableata scaleof, 7. Thesemaps arepreparedbytheU. Themapsprovide informationontheoveralltopographyofthesiteincludingdrainagepatterns, slopeinclinations,wetlandsandgeneralaccessibilityforfeldexploration. Usedinconjunctionwithgeologicmapsandaerialphotos,easilyrecognized geologicfeaturescansometimesbeidentifed.

Theheadscarpsandhummocky terrainoflandslidescanoftenbeidentifedfromtopographicmaps. Geologic Maps. Themapsshowthedistributionofthebasicgeologic unitsandprovideabriefdescriptionofeachdepositandrocktypeincluding depositionalenvironmentandrelativeage. Themapsalsoincludealistof referencesthatmayprovidemoreinformationonaparticulararea. TheDNRalsohaspublishedmapsshowingtheextentofgeohazardsin selectedareasofthestate. Thesemapsgiveanindicationofthepotential problemareas.

Themapsshowingslopestabilityandliquefablesoilsare particularlyuseful. Thesemapsgiveageneral indicationoftheextentofliquefablesoilsintheregion. Seismicaccelerationmapsarealso availablefromtheUSGSandcanbefoundontheirwebsite. Somelocalagencieshavedevelopedgeohazardmapsdepictingfoodplainsor areasofsteepslopes. Thesemapsareavailablefromtheindividualcitiesand counties.

Aerial photoscanbeoneofthemostusefulsourcesofinformationforplanningthe subsurfaceexplorationprogram.

Whenusedwithageneralunderstanding ofthegeologyofthesiteandlimitedsubsurfaceinformation,theextentof geologicdepositsonthesitecanoftenbedetermined. Usingstereo-pairsof photoscangreatlyenhancetheinterpretationoflandforms. Theidentifcationofalandformasadune,terracedeposit,alluvialfan, esker,moraine,orothertypeofdepositoftenpermitsthegeneralsubsurface conditionstobeestablishedwithingivenlimitsandthusyieldstheinitial appraisalofthesituation. Drainagepatternscanalsoaidintheidentifcation ofsoiltypeandinthestructuralcharacteristicsoftheunderlyingrock.

The maximumamountofinformationwillbeobtainedwhenaerialphotosare usedinconjunctionwithfeldinvestigationsthatcanverifyandcorrect interpretations. Landslidesareoftenrecognizableinaerialphotosbyslideformedfeatures orconditions,includinghillsidescars;disturbedordisruptedsoiland vegetationpatterns;distinctivechangesinslopeordrainagepatterns;irregular, hummuckysurfaces;smallundraineddepressions;step-liketerraces;andsteep hillsidescarps.

Althoughoneofthemorediffcultfeaturestoevaluate,vegetationisoften indicativeofsubsurfaceconditions. Therelationshipbetweenvegetation soiltype,moisturecontent,topographyandotherpertinentfactorsmaybe importantandanyvariationsshouldbecheckedinthefeld. Color photographsaregenerallypreferredbecauseobjectsareeasiertoidentify whentheyappearintheirnaturalcolor. Finedetailsandsmallobjectscanbe identifedmorepositivelythanonblackandwhitephotographsatthesame scaleandthecauseoftonalvariationsismorereadilyestablished.

Aerial photos from different years can give an indication of the history and previoususeofthesite. Acompletesetofairphotosfromtheoldestavailable tothemostrecentcangiveanindicationoftheprevioussiteuse,aswellas signifcantchangesintopographyorlandformsduetothemorerapidgeologic processessuchasstreamchannelmigration,beacherosion,landslides,or rockfall. Remote Sensing. SatelliteimagerysuchasLandsatcanoftenbeusedfor regionalinterpretationsofgeologicfeaturesanddrainagepatterns. LiDAR LightDetectionAndRanging mappingusesalasertomeasuredistances tospecifcpointsandiscapableofrapidlygeneratingdigitalelevationdata similartothatobtainedbytraditionalphotogrammetrytechniques.

OneoftheadvantagesofLiDARisthatvegetationcanberemoved fromthedatabasetorevealabareearthmodel. Landformsthataretypically obscuredbywesternWashingtonsheavyvegetationareoftenapparenton thebareearthview. Similartechnologyusinglandbasedequipmentis alsobecomingavailable.

Thesetechniquesarebeingmorewidelyusedfor mappingrivermorphologyandfoodplains,andgeologichazardsuchas landslidesandmaybeavailablefromlocalagencies. Soil Sur veys. Theresultsofthesurveysarepresentedin theformofreportsandmapswhichcommonlycoveracompletecounty. The reports,ingeneral,containadescriptionoftheaerialextent,physiography, relief,drainagepatterns,climate,andvegetation,aswellasthesoildeposits oftheareacovered.

Themapsshowtheextentandderivationofthevarious deposits. Thesurveysgivesomeinformationontheslopeinclinationand erosionhazardsthatmaybecommon. Thereportsalsoprovideengineering classifcationsofthenearsurfacesoilandsometimesinformationonthe suitabilityofthesoilsforvariousconstructionusesaswellasanindicationof thegeneraldrainagecharacteristics. Thesurveysareregionalinaspectandonlyprovideinformationonthetop severalfeetofsoil.

Theyshouldnotbeusedformorethanprovidingsome preliminarysoilinformation. Other Sources. WSDOTsunstableslopedatabaseshouldbereviewedfor anyhistoricproblemswithslopeinstabilityorrockfallproblems. Hydrogeologicsurveyscanprovideregionalinformationonthepresence anddepthofgroundwater. ScientifcarticlesandreportsongeologyinWashingtonmayalsobeavailable, throughtheDNRanduniversitylibraries. Files aregenerallyavailableforexistingbridges,retainingwalls,orsignifcantcuts andembankments. Materialsreportsandsourcereportsthatwerepreparedfor alignmentstudiesmightalsobeavailableeitherfromtheHQGeotechnical DivisionortheRegionMaterialsEngineer.

Manylogs canbeobtainedfromtheirwebsite. Thesoildescriptionsaregenerallynot veryreliable;however,informationongroundwaterlevelsandpresenceof bedrockcanbeobtainedfromthem. TheCityofSeattlehasdevelopedanexistingboringdatabaseinconjunction withtheUniversityofWashington. Thedatabaseincludesboringscompleted forlocalagencyprojectsaswellasdataprovidedbyconsultants. Thedatabase isavailableon-lineandincludesamapshowingexplorationlocationsalong withPDFimagesoftheboringlogs.

Notethatareviewof landuserecordsorreportsthatdescribeprevioussiteuses,especiallythose thatcouldidentifythepotentialforhazardouswastewillbecontainedina separatereportproducedbytheEnvironmentalAffairsOffce EAO ortheir consultant. Notethatidentifcationofpotentialhazardoussubsurfacematerialscould affectthesubsurfaceinvestigationapproachforthegeotechnicaldesign.

Thisissuemayneedtobeconsidered,therefore,intheplanningforthe geotechnicalsubsurfaceinvestigation.


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Thegeotechnicalinvestigation approachwillalsoneedtobeadjustedduringthesubsurfaceinvestigation ifpotentiallyhazardousmaterialsareretrievedduringthesubsurface investigation,bothforcrewsafetypurposesandtocomplywithenvironmental regulations. If,duringtheoffcerevieworduringsubsequentsubsurfaceinvestigation potentiallyhazardousmaterialsarediscovered,theEAOshouldbenotifed. TheEAOwillinvestigatethepotentialforhazardouswaste,defningitsnature andextent,andhowtoaddressitfortheproject. Othersiteusesmayalsoaffectthesiteinvestigationapproachandpossiblythe timingoftheinvestigation.

Especiallyimportantiswhetherornotthesiteis historicallyorarcheologicallysignifcant,andwhetherornotthereispotential forartifactstobediscoveredatthesite. Theinvestigationforthistypeof previoussiteuseshouldbeconductedpriortobeginningthegeotechnicalsite investigation. Ingeneral,theregionprojectoffceisresponsibleformaking surethatthisinvestigationiscarriedout. Whilethegeotechnicaldesignerisnotresponsibletospecifcallycarry outadetailedinvestigationregardingthepotentialtoencounterhazardous subsurfacematerialsorarcheologicalartifacts,thegeotechnicaldesigneris responsibletoknowwhetherornotsuchinvestigationshavetakenplace,to communicatethisinformationtotheFieldExplorationManager FEM ,and toadjustthegeotechnicalsiteexplorationprogramaccordingly.

HeadquartersFinal Recordshasthemostcompletecollectionofconstructionrecords. GenerallytheRegionMaterialsEngineerwillbetheprimarycontactto obtainanyconstructionrecordsfromtheRegionProjectoffces. TheHQ GeotechnicalDivisionalsohassomeconstructionrecords. Allthreeoffces shouldbecontactedforavailableconstructionrecords. ConsultationwithWSDOTprojectengineerswhomayhavecompleted workonsimilarstructuresinthesamegeneralareashouldbeutilizedtogain generalinformationonthesoil,foundation,andgroundwaterconditions.

Previousexperiencemayalsorevealacceptablefoundationconditionsforthe problemsathand. Manyofthecountyandcityagenciesalsomaintainrecordsofinvestigations andconstruction,andthesearegenerallyavailablethrougheachagency. Thereviewofavailabledatashouldbedonepriortothefeldreconnaissance toestablishwhattolookforatthesite. Thefeldreconnaissanceshouldalso bedonewiththepreliminaryplansinhand. Crosssectionsprovidedwith thepreliminaryplansshouldbefeldchecked.

Thecrosssectionsareoften generatedbyphotogrammetryandmaynotaccuratelyrepresenttheexisting groundsurface. Ifavailable,theprojectdesignengineer,structuralengineer andfeldexplorationsupervisorshouldalsoparticipateinthesitevisit. Notethelocation,typeanddepthofanyexistingstructuresorabandoned foundationsthatmayinfringeonthenewstructure. Inspectanynearby structurestodeterminetheirperformance. Ifsettlementorlateralmovement issuspected,obtaintheoriginalstructureplansandarrangetohavethe structuresurveyedusingtheoriginalbenchmark,ifpossible. Forwatercrossings,inspectstructurefootingsandthestreambanksup anddownstreamforevidenceofscour.

Riprappresentaroundthebridge foundationmayindicateapastscourproblem,couldimpactthelocation oftestboringsandwillneedtobedealtwithduringconstruction. Takenote ofthestreambedmaterial. Oftenlargecobblesandbouldersareexposedin thestreambed,butnotencounteredintheboringsornotedontheboringlogs. Thebouldersareanindicationofunexpectedsubsurfaceobstructionstodeep foundationinstallation. Checkaccessfor explorationequipmentandmakeaninitialdeterminationofwhattypeof equipmentmightbebestsuitedtothesiteconditions.

Ifsitepreparationis necessary,notethetypeofequipment,suchasabulldozer,thatmaybeneeded fordrillingequipmentaccess. Notepotentialproblemswithutilitiessuch asoverheadandundergroundpower,siteaccess,privatepropertyorother obstructions. Whileutilityclearanceswillneedtobeobtainedbeforethe subsurfaceexplorationbegins,thelocationswillinfuencewhereexplorations canbelocated. Alsonotetraffccontrolneedstoaccomplishthefeldexplorationprogram, considering the practical aspects of the proposed drilling plan with regard toimpacttothepublic.

Ifboringsaretobelocatedinastreambed,the reconnaissanceshouldnotethesizeofthebargebestsuitedforthejob,details ofanchoring,depthofwater,locationsforlaunchingthebarge,etc. Notes shouldbemadeastowhichtypeofdrillingisbestsuitedtothesite. Also notepotentialproblemswithboringssuchasshallowgroundwatertable, looseorheavingsands,cobblesandboulders,etc. Availabilityofwater,if coringormudrotarymethodsareanticipated,shouldbedetermined.

Special samplingequipmentneeded,suchasundisturbedsamplingequipment, shouldbenoted. Thisevaluationoffeldinvestigationlogisticsshouldbe donewiththeassistanceofthegeotechnicalfeldexplorationmanageror supervisorstotakeadvantageoftheirexpertiseinworkingwithgeotechnical explorationequipmentandinconductingageotechnicalfeldinvestigation seeWSDOTGDMSection3. However,noteproximityofresidencesandbuildingsforpossible diffcultiesduetonoiseandotherdisturbancesduringthesubsurface exploration. Localresidentscanoftenprovidesomeinformationonthehistory ofthesite.

Compare the topography of the site with that shown on maps and try to confrmtheassumptionsmadeduringtheoffcereviewconcerningthesite geology. Observeandnotenaturaloccurringexposuressuchasriverbanks, naturalescarpments,quarries,highwayorrailwaycutsandrockoutcrops. Noteanddescribethe typeandamountoffllthathasbeenplacedonthesite. For unstableslopesorlandslidesnotethelengthandwidthoftheareaaffected. Noteanyotherindicationsofinstabilitysuchaspistolbuttingoftrees, hummockyterrainorsprings.

Full investigationoftheseissueswillrequirereviewofthesiteconditionswell aboveandbelowthefacilityalignment,andmayextendontoprivate property.

Rightofentrymaybeneededinsuchcasestocompletethesite reconnaissance. Ifsteepslopesmustbeaccessedtofullyinvestigatethe site,safetyissueswillneedtobeaddressedbeforeattemptingtoaccessthe area,oralternativemeansofgettingintothepositiontomakethenecessary observationsshouldbeconsidered e. Handholesorprobesmaybeusefultoobtaininformationondepthofsoft soils. Photographsarevaluablerecordsofthesitevisitandshouldbelabeledwith theapproximatestationing,directionofview,date,andabrieftitle. Photos shouldbeobtainedofallthesitefeatureslistedaboveandoftheprobable explorationlocations. Therecordshouldlistanddescribesignifcantsitefeaturesasdiscussed abovealongwithapproximatestationing.

Thesectionsthatfollow expandontheconsiderationsrequiredforthepreparationofthesubsurface explorationplan. Typicalproperties andconditionstobeevaluatedincludepermeability,compressibility,shear strength,thelocationofgroundwaterandthepresenceandmagnitudeof artesianpressures,ifpresent. Thetype,location,sizeanddepthoftheexplorationsandtestingare dependentuponthenatureandsizeoftheprojectandonthedegreeof complexityandcriticalnatureofthesubsurfaceconditions. Ingeneral,it isjustifabletospendadditionalmoneyonexplorationsandrelatedtesting andengineeringbeyondthestandardsasidentifedinthismanualaslong assuffcientsavingscanberealizedintheprojectconstructioncosts.

Considerationshouldbegiventothesmallcostofaboringinrelationtothe foundationcost. Yet theknowledgegainedfromtheboringmaypermitamoreeffcientdesignthat mayalloweliminationofoneormorepilesforthatstructure. Considerationshouldbegiventohowsensitivethestructureorembankment istovariationsinsubsurfaceconditionswhenplanningthegeotechnical investigation. Embankmentscangenerallytolerateseveralinchesof settlementwhileastructuremaybelimitedtolessthanoneinch.

Embankment loadsarespreadoverawideareawhilestructureloadsareconcentrated. Someconsiderationshouldbegiventotheamountofriskthatunknown soilconditionscouldbringtotheproject e. Therearetimeswhen soilconditionsmaybeunderstoodfairlywellforthegeotechnicaldesign,but thatunknownsoilconditionscouldaffectthecostoftheproject. Generally ifrockisencounteredatthefoundationgradeinaboringatapierlocation, thelocationandqualityoftherockshouldbeexploredattheothersideofthe pier.

Ifrockmayfallofftowardstheriver,makesuretheboringsexplorethe rockcontactonthefrontsideofthefooting. Whileengineeringjudgmentwillneedto be applied by a licensed and experienced geotechnical professional to adapt theexplorationprogramtothefoundationtypesanddepthsneededandto thevariabilityinthesubsurfaceconditionsobserved,theintentofspecifc requirementsprovidedinthechaptersidentifedaboveregardingtheminimum levelofexplorationneededshouldbecarriedout. Eventhebestandmostdetailedsubsurface explorationprogramsmaynotidentifyeveryimportantsubsurfaceproblem conditionifconditionsarehighlyvariable.

Thegoalofthesubsurface explorationprogram,however,istoreducetheriskofsuchproblemstoan acceptableminimum. Inalaterallyhomogeneousarea,drillingoradvancingalargenumberof boringsmayberedundant,sinceeachsampletestedwouldexhibitsimilar engineeringproperties. Furthermore,inareaswheresoilorrockconditions areknowntobeveryfavorabletotheconstructionandperformanceofthe foundationtypelikelytobeused e. Testboringsaretypicallytheprimarymeansusedtoobtaintheneeded subsurfaceinformationandsamplesforlaboratorytesting.

However,other meansofobtainingsubsurfacedatashouldbeconsideredtoprovideamore completepictureofthesubsurfaceconditionsandtohelpreduceexploration costs. Coneprobescanbearapidandcosteffectmeanstoreducethenumberof conventionalborings,yetprovideadditionaldatathatcannotbeobtainedfrom conventionaltestholedrillingandsampling. Conedatacanbeespecially effectiveindefningthefnerstratigraphyofgeologicunits,toobtainpore pressuremeasurementsandin-situpermeabilityandshearwavevelocities, as well as obtain data that can be directly correlated to a variety of soil properties.

However,theconeisnotveryusefulindensetoverydensesoilsor soilswithlargergravelsandcobbles duetoinabilitytopenetratesuchsoils. Theconecanbeespeciallyusefulincomparisontoconventionalboringswhen heavingsandsarepresent. Ifconeprobesareusedtosupplementasubsurface explorationprogram,someconventionaltestholedataarenecessaryto correlatereadingsfromtheprobetophysicalsamplesofthesoil sincethe coneisnotcapableofretrievingphysicalsoilsamples,aswellastoobtainsoil samplesforlaboratorymeasurementofsoilproperties. Similarly,in-situtestingdevicessuchasthepressuremeterorvaneshearcan beconductedtosupplementconventionaltestholedrillingtoobtainspecifc in-situproperties.

Forexample,thepressuremeterisusefulforobtaining in-situsoilstiffnesspropertiesthatcanbeusedtomoreaccuratelyassess settlementorlateralloadresponseoffoundations. Shearvanetestingcan beusefultoobtainin-situundrainedshearstrengthofsoftcohesivesoils. Geophysicaltechniquesshouldalsobeconsideredtofllinthegapsbetween testholesandtopotentiallyreducethecostofthegeotechnicalsubsurface investigation. Geophysicaltechniquesareespeciallyusefulfordefning geologicstratigraphy,andcanbeusefultoidentifyburiederosionchannels, detailedrocksurfacelocation,overallrockquality,buriedobstructionsor cavities,etc.

Geophysicaltestsshallbeselectedandconductedinaccordancewith availableASTMstandards. ForthosecaseswhereASTMstandardsarenot available,otherwidelyaccepteddetailedguidelines,suchasSabatini, et al. Geophysicaltestingofferssomenotableadvantagesandsomedisadvantages thatshouldbeconsideredbeforethetechniqueisrecommendedforaspecifc application. Theadvantagesaresummarizedasfollows: Manygeophysicaltestsarenoninvasiveandthus,offer,signifcantbenefts incaseswhereconventionaldrilling,testingandsamplingarediffcult e. Ingeneral,geophysicaltestingcoversarelativelylargearea,thus providingtheopportunitytogenerallycharacterizelargeareasinorder tooptimizethelocationsandtypesofin-situtestingandsampling.

Geophysicalmethodsareparticularlywellsuitedtoprojectsthathave largelongitudinalextentcomparedtolateralextent suchasfornew highwayconstruction. Geophysicalmeasurementassessesthecharacteristicsofsoilandrock atverysmallstrains,typicallyontheorderof0. Forthepurposeofobtainingsubsurfaceinformation,geophysicalmethods are relatively inexpensive when considering cost relative to the large areas overwhichinformationcanbeobtained. Itisdiffculttodevelopgoodstratigraphicproflingifthegeneral stratigraphy consists of hard material over soft material or resistive materialoverconductivematerial.

Resultsaregenerallyinterpretedqualitativelyand,therefore,onlyan experiencedengineerorgeologistfamiliarwiththeparticulartesting methodcanobtainusefulresults. Specializedequipmentisrequired comparedtomoreconventional subsurfaceexplorationtools. Sinceevaluationisperformedatverylowstrains ornostrainatall , informationregardingultimatestrengthforevaluationofstrengthlimit statesisonlyobtainedbycorrelation.

Thereareanumberofdifferentgeophysicalin-situteststhatcanbeused forstratigraphicinformationanddeterminationofengineeringproperties. Samplingrequirementswilldependonthetypeofsoilorrockencountered andthenatureoftheprojectelementtobedesignedandtheproperties necessaryforthegeotechnicaldesignofthatprojectelement. Properties neededfordesign,andhowthosepropertiescanbestbeobtained,should beidentifedaspartofthegeotechnicalinvestigationplanningprocess. File in: Commerce. Commerce Acquisition Manual Purchase Card - 11th commerce subjects state board 12 board exam time table commerce 12th class notes mp board.

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Geotechnical Design Manual: M 46-03.07 April 2012

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