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In [ 48 ] also point out tensions and challenges in establishing and maintaining partnerships between schools and other community bodies, namely, the reluctance of some organizations to cooperate with schools other than their own, and vice-versa, the obligation to provide young people with learning that has meaning for them and is valued by the job market, the need to maintain permanent communication between the school and its partners, and the difficulty in measuring the success of partnerships regarding determination of the effects of participation in them and the advantages in continuing with them.

The formation of partnerships implies that the parties share a common and mutual interest in a joint activity [ 18 ].

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It is not surprising there have been a large number of initiatives developed worldwide to promote a broad range of entrepreneurial activities within academic institutions [ 50 ]. These include programmes to develop new organisations as well as projects that link the school to businesses within the region [ 51 , 52 ].

In the last two decades, entrepreneurship education has expanded significantly in most industrialized countries [ 53 ], as the number of courses in entrepreneurship has continued to increase, both in Europe [ 54 , 55 ], and in the United States of America [ 56 , 57 ]. Compared to many other disciplines, that of entrepreneurship is in its infancy, with no standard framework or agreed best practices for entrepreneurial education [ 7 , 8 ]. There is even some debate among scholars as to the wisdom of teaching students to become entrepreneurs in the light of current teaching pedagogy [ 58 , 59 ].

Standing out among the entrepreneurial competences triggered by education, some authors [ 60 , 61 ] mention increased knowledge in the field of entrepreneurship, creativity, the sense of opportunity, the ability to take on risks and cope with uncertainty and responsibility. Nevertheless, the central set of skills in this century includes the ability to solve analytical problems, innovation and creativity, taking the initiative, flexibility and adaptability, critical thought and communication and collaboration skills [ 62 , 63 ], skills that are also appreciated by future employers [ 11 , 64 ].

To transmit this knowledge and these competences to young people, some programmes have appeared. The aim of the EMPRE Project is to instil and encourage entrepreneurial and personal skills, highlighting the following: responsibility and organization; expression and communication; initiative and creativity; teamwork and cooperation; interpersonal relations and sociability Proposal for Pedagogical Intervention EMPRE — School Entrepreneurs AEVH The project has a consultant supporting the classes involved, a collaborator from Tagusvalley, with the task of managing the period of each phase of the project in total-, helping to structure the organization of classes, providing additional information and advice to both pupils and teachers, and facilitating links between teachers, schools and other bodies Presentation of EMPRE Methodology.

Given the exploratory nature of the study and the research questions, the case study— qualitative approach— is seen to be the most appropriate method. The case study method was chosen for this research because it offers a suitable mechanism for exploring in depth, areas that have little well developed theory and it has demonstrated this value in the social sciences, particularly in relation to schools and the community. Cases, especially exploratory case studies, are also an effective mechanism for the development of theory [ 65 , 66 ].

The option to carry out the research in a single state school followed the criterion of analysing a school in an inland region of the country which is predominantly rural, depressed and distant from major centres, and comprehension of partnerships formed by the school with local and regional bodies to promote entrepreneurship education. The figure below shows the partners involved in implementing this programme to stimulate entrepreneurial education in AEVH. The data collection process involved several documents provided by the organizations and interviews.

This use of multiple data sources and the subsequent ability to examine several documents provided good triangulation [ 67 ]. Parents and business-people were not interviewed in this study. Data is triangulated [ 68 ] where possible in order to determine replicable information and denounce inconsistent information in an attempt to minimize the subjectivity of the data presented.

The first phase of data-collection began by identifying the documents that in each partner would be most likely to contain useful information for understanding the partnerships formed in the scope of promoting education in entrepreneurship. Document selection was based on criteria of their availability and their relevance for analysis of the partnerships formed by AEVH.

Table 1 shows the documents analyzed from the three partners involved in this study. Each interview lasted approximately thirty minutes and was recorded, allowing data to be stored and facilitating the organization and analysis of the information Table 2. Regarding data treatment, due to the information sources being documents and interviews, content analysis [ 69 ] was chosen, a technique that allows analysis of the content of literary information in an objective and systematic way.

A first reading of the content of the documents selected aimed to discover how inter-organizational partnerships were mentioned in the documents analyzed.

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Table 3 summarizes the analysis made, indicating the number of times each expression appears in each document and in what context. From the documentary analysis presented in Table 3 , it can be observed that it is documents issued by AEVH that make most frequent reference to specific relationships concerning inter-organizational partnerships, particularly with entities in the field, and more exactly with parents and families.

As for the Local Authority CMM documents, despite the content denoting commitment to the educational success of pupils in the area and the will show to make CMM resources which could contribute to that end available to AEVH, in those documents there is no specific use of expressions related to partnerships with AEVH, with one exception regarding the supply of school meals. Concerning the documents from Tagusvalley, it is of note there is only one explicit reference to partnerships with various entities in the sphere of entrepreneurship education, among which we can naturally include schools, and AEVH in particular.

Regarding classification of the type of partnerships formed by AEVH in the sphere of entrepreneurship education, we can consider these are partnerships of a pragmatic type due to the small number of actors involved and because the problem to be solved is relatively structured and its focus is the development of a specific programme. Therefore, the hierarchical level involved in the AEVH partnerships analysed is the highest in each of the partner organizations, which can be considered contrary to the characterization of [ 42 ].

Some of the documentation analysed also allowed assessment of the typology of the relations formed between the partners identified here, particularly the fact these relationships are long-lasting, habitual and wide-ranging with regard to their scope and diversity of partners, based on appreciation of the environment.

The sharing of experiences can be informal, promoting contacts. In this way, a path to strengthening intra-network links is begun, allowing the acquisition and construction of social capital.

This informality in the partnerships formed is confirmed in the statements of the three interviewees:. It was also possible to characterize the relationships between the three organizations studied. Those relationships are reciprocal and long-lasting, are not limited to a single area and are based on trust between the people leading them, with bonds resulting from prolonged contact, provided by not only geographical but also ideological proximity. Inasmuch, the evidence of this case study corroborates the work of [ 31 ] and [ 43 ] on the importance of space and place and social capital for the type of relationships that emerge in a community, especially a rural, isolated and depressed one, such as the one studied here.

The three interviewees are clearly in harmony regarding the reasons at the origin of forming the partnerships analysed. In the view of this organization, quality education allows new horizons to be opened up, with the final objective being that young people become responsible, entrepreneurial adults who return to the district to give of their best. These organizations pursue certain common objectives, assuming that as a group they achieve what would not be possible individually [ 71 ]. Concerning recognition, by all partners, of a common purpose behind establishing the partnership, the evidence obtained in this case study confirms what is stated in the literature [ 40 , 48 , 49 ].

Indeed, the need to get hold of resources from community institutions to develop educational projects at school is an aspect highlighted in the literature [ 37 , 41 ]. It can also be seen from the documentary analysis that CMM refers to the dimension of the resources in at least one of the documents analysed and its willingness to provide them for educational and school use.

1. Introduction

Forming partnerships with other local organizations with a view to that medium and long-term objective is evident in the documents originating in AEVH. That objective is accepted as the purpose of establishing the partnerships analysed, and is common to all those involved. In this particular aspect of the involvement of parents as partners in activating entrepreneurship education programmes, the evidence of this study does not confirm the conclusions of [ 20 ] and [ 48 ] that parents are becoming a pressure group able to influence the school curriculum, despite recognizing their authority and desiring their intervention and collaboration in those programmes.

Indeed, in the documents guiding AEVH, there is an expressed wish to involve parents and families in school life, but their remoteness is also mentioned and considered a barrier to forming partnerships with these actors. At this moment, the challenge for AEVH seems to be to get parents involved somehow in the activities developed at school rather than obtaining their support for decisions concerning the curriculum to implement.

However, in the interview with the head of AEVH, it is evident there is a certain discomfort in elements of the school caused by the loss of absolute control of the process, as a result of forming partnerships. Despite that and the merely informal appreciation of the results of the partnerships, their continuation assumes the result is positive. The following quotations give other empirical evidence of the barriers felt by the partners involved in these inter-organizational partnerships. The lack of finance was another obstacle identified by this interviewee in implementing EEP in the school.

For the success of the partnerships, the Mayor of CMM and the coordinator from Tagusvalley pointed out the style of leadership exercised by the head of AEVH, this being of a relational type. The following quotations show other success factors:. It is noted that it was not possible to associate any evidence of these factors in the content of the documentation analysed.

In fact, trust has also been identified as an important variable determining whether a partnership can be maintained or not. In [ 60 ] it is necessary to pay greater attention to the partnership processes. Factors such as trust, commitment, open communication, flexibility and the capacity to manage conflicts should be considered. Indeed, in a partnership it is important to communicate easily with potential stakeholders to minimize resistance to its creation and maintenance. Learning processes are often the result of partnerships between schools and local institutions, corroborating the possibility of going beyond the boundaries of education, training and work systems, as proposed by [ 49 ].

This chapter seeks to highlight the role of partnerships in entrepreneurship education programmes to encourage the growth of entrepreneurial motivations in secondary schools. Educational institutions have the role of educating and preparing individuals to become employees [ 55 ]. Self-employment or entrepreneurship has not been traditionally viewed as a career choice for graduates. Thus, this traditional role needs to be reformed because the world is changing. The literature highlights the importance of promoting entrepreneurial skills among students [ 19 ].

A framework for a teaching toolkit in entrepreneurship education

However, the overwhelming majority of curricular programmes do not contemplate contents related to entrepreneurship, teachers have no specific training in the subject and the formal educational system itself does not contribute to developing skills commonly associated with entrepreneurship.

Nevertheless, schools, and particularly those in charge of them, are aware of the need to equip young people with these skills, and so they have embarked on partnerships with local and regional bodies in order to give their pupils the possibility of benefiting from Programmes of Education in Entrepreneurship. The Verde Horizonte Group of Schools AEVH studied here is an example of a school organization which, to meet some needs for specific resources to activate those programmes, but contained in a collaborative strategy with local and regional actors, formed a set of partnerships with organizations that could add some unequivocal advantages regarding education in entrepreneurship.

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This study was also able to conclude that the involvement of parents and guardians is not yet what would be wished for, according to the intentions expressed in the empirical evidence, and is not a true partnership regarding education in entrepreneurship. This fact arises from the study as the most obvious obstacle to the functioning of partnerships between the schools and community analysed, with a long way to go in relation to the influence and authority of this actor in the school context. Therefore, we believe that the Entrepreneurship Education Programme presents a viable model for fruitful inter-school collaboration and cooperation in entrepreneurship programming.

The evidence so far indicates that it has been highly successful after only three years of operation. We suggest this model may be very useful to other regional groupings of entrepreneurship centres, as long as the geographical spread is not too great and the collaboration maintains its focus. We think the region will also reap the benefit of our efforts in the long run. Several implications for policymakers and leaders of academic institutions follow on from the results presented here.

There is a need to involve parents in defining a strategy of education in entrepreneurship.

Teaching Entrepreneurship - Cases for Education and Training | Peter van der Sijde | Springer

There is also the need to reward the teachers involved in the dynamics of EEP for example, through assessing their performance. There may be a risk of abandoning the defined strategy for entrepreneurship education, if and when institutional leaders are replaced in their respective posts, since the partnerships formed are based essentially on the informal and even personal bonds existing between them. Those in charge should implant the vision that entrepreneurship education is not the exclusive responsibility of the school and that the sphere of action can and should be occupied by other institutions in the community, for example, companies and business associations, whose technical knowledge is indispensable for the dynamics of entrepreneurship education.

This study is not without its limitations. This limitation prevented, for example, perception of the role represented by parents in defining the school curriculum. With parents being considered in the literature as an increasingly powerful pressure group, this is an unavoidable question in understanding the partnerships described. Inclusion of that actor is therefore suggested for analysis in future research, so that the data obtained are more wide-ranging, giving more depth to conclusions.

Another limitation of this study arises from the method used — study of a single case— which, despite being the most appropriate for this research, presents the disadvantage of not allowing generalization of conclusions.

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  5. Data were analyzed for a single Group of Schools, in a specific context, and so generalization of the conclusions of this study to other cases is not possible, due to its specific characteristics, such as the social and business situation, cultural aspects, educational structure and geographical location, among other determinants of the type of relationships formed between School and Community. As a future line of research, we suggest developing this investigation in a significant number of schools with triangulation of research methods, resorting to methods of a quantitative nature, so that a comparative analysis can be made with generalization of the results obtained.

    Licensee IntechOpen. This chapter is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3. Help us write another book on this subject and reach those readers. Researchers partnered with Educate! Experience program in Uganda over a four-year period. The study also investigated whether the Educate! Experience program impacted intimate partner violence IPV -related outcomes. Researchers randomly assigned 48 schools, stratified by district 6 districts , to either be part of the comparison group or to receive the full program.

    A total of 1, students participated in the study in those schools received the program; did not. Students in the treatment group received the full Educate! Experience program, which has three main components:. Mentorship: one-on-one mentoring sessions focused on personal development; once per term, the mentor holds a group mentorship session to discuss any issues with the entire class. Student Business Development Clubs: clubs focused on business development and designed to help scholars design projects that generate income.

    The program also included a teacher support training and a scholarship for qualified and accomplished candidates. The program was successfully implemented during the school years.

    Based on preliminary results from the four-year follow-up, the program had strong and meaningful impacts on Educate! Impacts were also recorded for selected Big Five personality traits e. Furthermore, Educate! The study did not find any impact on political participation, community engagement, or trust in institutions, however. The program had limited impacts on knowledge of hard skills. On average, Educate! The program also had positive impacts on educational outcomes, particularly for female participants. Female graduates were 8.

    At the time of the four-year follow-up the new skills had not translated into higher rates of employment formal or self-employment or higher wages, earnings, revenues, or profits relative to the comparison group. However, it is important to note that many graduates were still pursuing their education at the time of the follow-up 35 percent of the sample were still enrolled in tertiary education. It is therefore too early to understand whether the program impacts labor market outcomes, and a longer-term follow up is be needed. As highlighted above, the Educate!

    In addition, the program generated positive social spillovers including delayed family formation, less risky behavior, shifts in social norms, and reductions in intimate partner violence. Overall, the findings join a small but growing body of research suggesting that soft skills associated with entrepreneurial success are malleable and can be taught, and that improvements persist for years afterwards.