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  3. Expert Resumes for Career Changers (2nd Edition).
  4. The Stability of Two, Three, and Four Wave Interactions of a Prototype System.
  5. KWer Fordfreunde.

The crosscutting concepts of cause and effect; systems and system models; stability and change; interdependence of science, engineering, and technology; and influence of engineering, technology, and science on society and the natural world are highlighted as organizing concepts for these disciplinary core ideas. In the PS3 performance expectations, students are expected to demonstrate proficiency in asking questions, using mathematical thinking, engaging in argument from evidence and obtaining, evaluating, and communicating information and to use these practices to demonstrate understanding of the core ideas.

Use the periodic table as a model to predict the relative properties of elements based on the patterns of electrons in the outermost energy level of atoms. Assessment does not include quantitative understanding of ionization energy beyond relative trends. Construct and revise an explanation for the outcome of a simple chemical reaction based on the outermost electron states of atoms, trends in the periodic table, and knowledge of the patterns of chemical properties. Plan and conduct an investigation to gather evidence to compare the structure of substances at the bulk scale to infer the strength of electrical forces between particles.

Examples of particles could include ions, atoms, molecules, and networked materials such as graphite. Examples of bulk properties of substances could include the melting point and boiling point, vapor pressure, and surface tension. Develop a model to illustrate that the release or absorption of energy from a chemical reaction system depends on the changes in total bond energy. Examples of models could include molecular-level drawings and diagrams of reactions, graphs showing the relative energies of reactants and products, and representations showing energy is conserved.

Apply scientific principles and evidence to provide an explanation about the effects of changing the temperature or concentration of the reacting particles on the rate at which a reaction occurs. Refine the design of a chemical system by specifying a change in conditions that would produce increased amounts of products at equilibrium. Examples of designs could include different ways to increase product formation, including adding reactants or removing products. Assessment does not include calculating equilibrium constants and concentrations.

Use mathematical representations to support the claim that atoms, and therefore mass, are conserved during a chemical reaction. Develop models to illustrate the changes in the composition of the nucleus of the atom and the energy released during the processes of fission, fusion, and radioactive decay. Assessment is limited to alpha, beta, and gamma radioactive decays. Use mathematical representations to support the claim that the total momentum of a system of objects is conserved when there is no net force on the system.

Apply science and engineering ideas to design, evaluate, and refine a device that minimizes the force on a macroscopic object during a collision. Examples of a device could include a football helmet or a parachute. Plan and conduct an investigation to provide evidence that an electrical current can produce a magnetic field and that a changing magnetic field can produce an electrical current. Communicate scientific and technical information about why the molecular-level structure is important in the functioning of designed materials.

Examples could include why electrically conductive materials are often made of metal, flexible but durable materials are made up of long chained molecules, and pharmaceuticals are designed to interact with specific receptors. Create a computational model to calculate the change in the energy of one component in a system when the change in energy of the other component s and energy flows in and out of the system are known.

Develop and use models to illustrate that energy at the macroscopic scale can be accounted for as a combination of energy associated with the motion of particles objects and energy associated with the relative positions of particles objects. Examples of models could include diagrams, drawings, descriptions, and computer simulations. Design, build, and refine a device that works within given constraints to convert one form of energy into another form of energy. Examples of devices could include Rube Goldberg devices, wind turbines, solar cells, solar ovens, and generators.

Examples of constraints could include use of renewable energy forms and efficiency. Assessment is limited to devices constructed with materials provided to students. Plan and conduct an investigation to provide evidence that the transfer of thermal energy when two components of different temperature are combined within a closed system results in a more uniform energy distribution among the components in the system second law of thermodynamics.

Examples of investigations could include mixing liquids at different initial temperatures or adding objects at different temperatures to water. Develop and use a model of two objects interacting through electrical or magnetic fields to illustrate the forces between objects and the changes in energy of the objects due to the interaction. Use mathematical representations to support a claim regarding relationships among the frequency, wavelength, and speed of waves traveling in various media. Evaluate questions about the advantages of using digital transmission and storage of information.

Introduction

Disadvantages could include issues of easy deletion, security, and theft. Evaluate the claims, evidence, and reasoning behind the idea that electromagnetic radiation can be described either by a wave model or a particle model, and that for some situations one model is more useful than the other. Examples of a phenomenon could include resonance, interference, diffraction, and photoelectric effect. Evaluate the validity and reliability of claims in published materials of the effects that different frequencies of electromagnetic radiation have when absorbed by matter.

Examples of published materials could include trade books, magazines, Web resources, videos, and other passages that may reflect bias. Communicate technical information about how some technological devices use the principles of wave behavior and wave interactions with matter to transmit and capture information and energy. Assessments do not include band theory. Students in high school develop understanding of key concepts that will help them make sense of the life sciences.

The performance expectations for high school life sciences blend core ideas with science and engineering practices and crosscutting concepts to support students in developing useable knowledge that can be applied across the science disciplines. While the performance expectations in high school life sciences couple particular practices with specific disciplinary core ideas, instructional decisions should include the use of many practices underlying the performance expectations.

In these performance expectations, students demonstrate that they can use investigations and gather evidence to support explanations of cell function and reproduction. They understand the role of proteins as essential to the work of the cell and living systems. Students can use models to explain photosynthesis, respiration, and the cycling of matter and flow of energy in living organisms.

The cellular processes can be used as a model for understanding the hierarchical organization of organisms. Crosscutting concepts of matter and energy, structure and function, and systems and system models provide students with insights to the structures and processes of organisms. High school students can use mathematical reasoning to demonstrate understanding of fundamental concepts of carrying capacity, factors affecting biodiversity and populations, and the cycling of matter and flow of energy among organisms in an ecosystem.

How can individuals of the same species and even siblings have different characteristics? Students are able to ask questions, make and defend a claim, and use concepts of probability to explain the genetic variation in a population. Students demonstrate understanding of why individuals of the same species vary in how they look, function, and behave.

Students can explain the mechanisms of genetic inheritance and describe the environmental and genetic causes of gene mutation and the alteration of gene expression. Crosscutting concepts of patterns and cause and effect are called out as organizing concepts for these core ideas. Students can construct explanations for the processes of natural selection and evolution and communicate how multiple lines of evidence support these explanations. Students can evaluate evidence of the conditions that may result in new species and understand the role of genetic variation in natural selection.

Additionally, students can apply concepts of probability to explain trends in populations as those trends relate to advantageous heritable traits in a specific environment. Construct an explanation based on evidence for how the structure of DNA determines the structure of proteins, which carry out the essential functions of life through systems of specialized cells.

Develop and use a model to illustrate the hierarchical organization of interacting systems that provide specific functions within multicellular organisms. An example of an interacting system could be an artery depending on the proper function of elastic tissue and smooth muscle to regulate and deliver the proper amount of blood within the circulatory system. Plan and conduct an investigation to provide evidence that feedback mechanisms maintain homeostasis. Use a model to illustrate the role of cellular division mitosis and differentiation in producing and maintaining complex organisms.

Use a model to illustrate how photosynthesis transforms light energy into stored chemical energy. Examples of models could include diagrams, chemical equations, and conceptual models. Use a model to illustrate that cellular respiration is a chemical process whereby the bonds of food molecules and oxygen molecules are broken and the bonds in new compounds are formed, resulting in a net transfer of energy. Examples of mathematical comparisons could include graphs, charts, histograms, and population changes gathered from simulations or historical data sets. Use mathematical representations to support and revise explanations based on evidence about factors affecting biodiversity and populations in ecosystems of different scales.

Construct and revise an explanation based on evidence for the cycling of matter and flow of energy in aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Use mathematical representations to support claims for the cycling of matter and flow of energy among organisms in an ecosystem. Emphasis is on atoms and molecules such as carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, and nitrogen being conserved as they move through an ecosystem. Develop a model to illustrate the role of photosynthesis and cellular respiration in the cycling of carbon among the biosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere, and geosphere.

Evaluate claims, evidence, and reasoning that the complex interactions in ecosystems maintain relatively consistent numbers and types of organisms in stable conditions, but changing conditions may result in a new ecosystem. Design, evaluate, and refine a solution for reducing the impacts of human activities on the environment and biodiversity. Examples of group behaviors could include flocking, schooling, herding, and cooperative behaviors such as hunting, migrating, and swarming. Organisms would have the capacity to produce populations of great size were it not for the fact that environments and resources are finite.

This fundamental tension affects the abundance number of individuals of species in any given ecosystem. Ask questions to clarify relationships about the role of DNA and chromosomes in coding the instructions for characteristic traits passed from parents to offspring. Apply concepts of statistics and probability to explain the variation and distribution of expressed traits in a population. Communicate scientific information that common ancestry and biological evolution are supported by multiple lines of empirical evidence. Examples of evidence could include similarities in DNA sequences, anatomical structures, and order of appearance of structures in embryological development.

Construct an explanation based on evidence that the process of evolution primarily results from four factors: 1 the potential for a species to increase in number, 2 the heritable genetic variation of individuals in a species due to mutation and sexual reproduction, 3 competition for limited resources, and 4 the proliferation of those organisms that are better able to survive and reproduce in the environment.

Examples of evidence could include mathematical models such as simple distribution graphs and proportional reasoning. Apply concepts of statistics and probability to support explanations that organisms with an advantageous heritable trait tend to increase in proportion to organisms lacking this trait.

Assessment does not include allele frequency calculations. Construct an explanation based on evidence for how natural selection leads to adaptation of populations. Evaluate the evidence supporting claims that changes in environmental conditions may result in 1 increases in the number of individuals of some species, 2 the emergence of new species over time, and 3 the extinction of other species. Create or revise a simulation to test a solution to mitigate adverse impacts of human activity on biodiversity.

Students in high school continue to develop their understanding of the three disciplinary core ideas in the earth and space sciences. The high school performance expectations in the earth and space sciences build on the middle school ideas and skills and allow high school students to explain more in-depth phenomena central not only to the earth and space sciences but to the life and physical sciences as well.

While the performance expectations shown in high school earth and space sciences couple particular practices with specific disciplinary core ideas, instructional decisions should include the use of many practices that lead to the performance expectations. Students examine the processes governing the formation, evolution, and workings of the solar system and universe. Some concepts studied are fundamental to science, such as understanding how the matter of our world formed during the Big Bang and within the cores of stars.

Others concepts are practical, such as understanding how short-term changes in the behavior of our sun directly affect humans. Engineering and technology play a large role here in obtaining and analyzing data that support theories of the formation of the solar system and universe. The crosscutting concepts of patterns, scale, proportion, quantity, energy and matter, and stability and change are called out as organizing concepts for these disciplinary core ideas.

In the ESS1 performance expectations, students are expected to demonstrate proficiency in developing and using models, using mathematical and computational thinking, constructing explanations and designing solutions, engaging in argument, and obtaining, evaluating, and communicating information and using these practices to demonstrate understanding of the core ideas. For the purpose of the Next Generation Science Standards, biogeology has been addressed within the life sciences standards.

Students begin to examine the ways that human activities cause feedbacks that create changes to other systems. Students understand the system interactions that control weather and climate, with a major emphasis on the mechanisms and implications of climate change.

Students model the flow of energy between different components of the weather system and how this affects chemical cycles such as the carbon cycle. The crosscutting concepts of cause and effect, energy and matter, structure and function, and stability and. In the ESS2 performance expectations, students are expected to demonstrate proficiency in developing and using models, planning and carrying out investigations, analyzing and interpreting data, and engaging in argument and to use these practices to demonstrate understanding of the core ideas.

Engineering and technology figure prominently here, as students use mathematical thinking and the analysis of geoscience data to examine and construct solutions to the many challenges facing long-term human sustainability on Earth. The crosscutting concepts of cause and effect, systems and system models, and stability and change are called out as organizing concepts for these disciplinary core ideas. In the ESS3 performance expectations, students are expected to demonstrate proficiency in analyzing and interpreting data, mathematical and computational thinking, constructing explanations and designing solutions and engaging in argument and to use these practices to demonstrate understanding of the core ideas.

Construct an explanation of the Big Bang theory based on astronomical evidence of light spectra, motion of distant galaxies, and composition of matter in the universe. Communicate scientific ideas about the way stars, over their life cycle, produce elements. Use mathematical or computational representations to predict the motion of orbiting objects in the solar system. Evaluate evidence of the past and current movements of continental and oceanic crust and the theory of plate tectonics to explain the ages of crustal rocks.

Examples include evidence of the ages of oceanic crust increasing with distance from mid-ocean ridges a result of plate spreading and the ages of North American continental crust increasing with distance away from a central ancient core a result of past plate interactions. Plan and conduct an investigation of the properties of water and its effects on Earth materials and surface processes. Examples of mechanical investigations include stream transportation and deposition using a stream table, erosion using variations in soil moisture content, and frost wedging by the expansion of water as it freezes.

Examples of chemical investigations include chemical weathering and recrystallization by testing the solubility of different materials or melt generation by examining how water lowers the melting temperature of most solids. Develop a quantitative model to describe the cycling of carbon among the hydrosphere, atmosphere, geosphere, and biosphere. Examples include how photosynthetic life altered the atmosphere through the production of oxygen, which in turn increased weathering rates and allowed for the evolution of animal life; how microbial life on land increased the formation of soil, which in turn allowed for the evolution of land plants; and how the evolution of corals created reefs that altered patterns of erosion and deposition along coastlines and provided habitats for the evolution of new life forms.

Construct an explanation based on evidence for how the availability of natural resources, occurrence of natural hazards, and changes in climate have influenced human activity. Examples of natural hazards can be from interior processes such as volcanic eruptions and earthquakes , surface processes such as tsunamis, mass wasting, and soil erosion , and severe weather such as hurricanes, floods, and droughts.

Examples of the results of changes in climate that can affect populations or drive mass migrations include changes to sea level, regional patterns of temperature and precipitation, and the types of crops and livestock that can be raised. Evaluate competing design solutions for developing, managing, and utilizing energy and mineral resources based on cost-benefit ratios. Examples include developing best practices for agricultural soil use, mining for coal, tar sands, and oil shales , and pumping for petroleum and natural gas.

Scientific knowledge indicates what can happen in natural systems—not what should happen. Create a computational simulation to illustrate the relationships among the management of natural resources, the sustainability of human populations, and biodiversity. Examples of factors that affect human sustainability include agricultural efficiency, levels of conservation, and urban planning. Evaluate or refine a technological solution that reduces impacts of human activities on natural systems.

Examples for limiting future impacts could range from local efforts such as reducing, reusing, and recycling resources to large-scale geoengineering design solutions such as altering global temperatures by making large changes to the atmosphere or ocean. Use a computational representation to illustrate the relationships among Earth systems and how those relationships are being modified due to human activity.

An example of the far-reaching impacts from a human activity is how an increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide results in an increase in photosynthetic biomass on land and an increase in ocean acidification, with resulting impacts on sea organism health and marine populations. At the high school level students are expected to engage with major global issues at the interface of science, technology, society, and the environment and to bring to bear the kinds of analytical and strategic thinking that prior training and increased maturity make possible. As in prior levels, these capabilities can be thought of in three stages—defining the problem, developing possible solutions, and improving designs.

Defining the problem at the high school level requires both qualitative and quantitative analyses. While high school students are not expected to solve these challenges, they are expected to begin thinking about them as problems that can be addressed, at least in part, through engineering. Developing possible solutions for major global problems begins by breaking them down into smaller problems that can be tackled with engineering methods. To evaluate potential solutions, students are expected to not only consider a wide range of criteria, but to also recognize that criteria need to be prioritized.

For example, public safety or environmental protection may be more important than cost or even functionality. Decisions on priorities can then guide tradeoff choices. Improving designs at the high school level may involve sophisticated methods, such as using computer simulations to model proposed solutions. Students are expected to use such methods to take into account a range of criteria and constraints, to try to anticipate possible societal and environmental impacts, and to test the validity of their simulations by comparison to the real world. Connections with other science disciplines help high school students develop these capabilities in various contexts.

For example, in the life sciences students are expected to design, evaluate, and refine a solution for reducing human impact on the environment HS-LS and to create or revise a simulation to test solutions for mitigating adverse impacts of human activity on biodiversity HS-LS In the physical sciences students solve problems by applying their engineering capabilities along with their knowledge of conditions for chemical reactions HS-PS , forces during collisions HS-PS , and conversion of energy from one form to another HS-PS These include analyzing major global challenges; quantifying criteria and constraints for solutions; breaking down a complex problem into smaller, more manageable problems; evaluating alternative solutions based on prioritized criteria and tradeoffs; and using computer simulation to model the impact of proposed solutions.

While the performance expectations shown in HS-ETS1 couple particular practices with specific disciplinary core ideas, instructional decisions should include use of many practices that lead to the performance expectations. Analyze a major global challenge to specify qualitative and quantitative criteria and constraints for solutions that account for societal needs and wants.

Design a solution to a complex real-world problem by breaking it down into smaller, more manageable problems that can be solved through engineering. Evaluate a solution to a complex real-world problem based on prioritized criteria and tradeoffs that account for a range of constraints, including cost, safety, reliability, and aesthetics, as well as possible social, cultural, and environmental impacts. Use a computer simulation to model the impact of proposed solutions to a complex real-world problem with numerous criteria and constraints on interactions within and between systems relevant to the problem.

Get This Book. Visit NAP. Looking for other ways to read this? No thanks. Page 2 Share Cite. Page 3 Share Cite. Page 4 Share Cite. Science and Engineering Practices Disciplinary Core Ideas Crosscutting Concepts Planning and Carrying Out Investigations Planning and carrying out investigations to answer questions or test solutions to problems in K—2 builds on prior experiences and progresses to simple investigations, based on fair tests, which provide data to support explanations or design solutions. With guidance, plan and conduct an investigation in collaboration with peers.

Analyze data from tests of an object or tool to determine if it works as intended. A: Forces and Motion Pushes and pulls can have different strengths and directions. B: Types of Interactions When objects touch or collide, they push on one another and can change motion. C: Relationship Between Energy and Forces A bigger push or pull makes things speed up or slow down more quickly. A: Defining Engineering Problems A situation that people want to change or create can be approached as a problem to be solved through engineering.

Such problems may have many acceptable solutions. Page 5 Share Cite. Make observations firsthand or from media to collect data that can be used to make comparisons. Use tools and materials provided to design and build a device that solves a specific problem or a solution to a specific problem. Page 6 Share Cite.

Use observations firsthand or from media to describe patterns in the natural world in order to answer scientific questions. They obtain their food from plants or from other animals. Plants need water and light to live and grow. Page 7 Share Cite. Construct an argument with evidence to support a claim. D: Weather and Climate Weather is the combination of sunlight, wind, snow or rain, and temperature in a particular region at a particular time.

People measure these conditions to describe and record the weather and to notice patterns over time. E: Biogeology Plants and animals can change their environment. C: Human Impacts on Earth Systems Things that people do to live comfortably can affect the world around them. But they can make choices that reduce their impacts on the land, water, air, and other living things.

Rogue and Shock Waves in Nonlinear Dispersive Media | SpringerLink

Page 8 Share Cite. Science and Engineering Practices Disciplinary Core Ideas Crosscutting Concepts Asking Questions and Defining Problems Asking questions and defining problems in K—2 builds on prior experiences and progresses to simple descriptive questions that can be tested. Ask questions based on observations to find more information about the designed world. Use a model to represent relationships in the natural world. A: Natural Resources Living things need water, air, and resources from the land, and they live in places that have the things they need.

Humans use natural resources for everything they do. B: Natural Hazards Some kinds of severe weather are more likely than others in a given region. Weather scientists forecast severe weather so that communities can prepare for and respond to these events. A: Defining and Delimiting an Engineering Problem Asking questions, making observations, and gathering information are helpful in thinking about problems. B: Developing Possible Solutions Designs can be conveyed through sketches, drawings, or physical models.

Page 9 Share Cite. Page 10 Share Cite. Plan and conduct investigations collaboratively to produce data to serve as the basis for evidence to answer a question. A: Wave Properties Sound can make matter vibrate, and vibrating matter can make sound. B: Electromagnetic Radiation Objects can be seen if light is available to illuminate them or if they give off their own light.

Mirrors can be used to redirect a light beam. Boundary: The idea that light travels from place to place is developed through experiences with light sources, mirrors, and shadows, but no attempt is made to discuss the speed of light. C: Information Technologies and Instrumentation People also use a variety of devices to communicate send and receive information over long distances. Page 11 Share Cite. Page 12 Share Cite. Use materials to design a device that solves a specific problem or a solution to a specific problem. A: Structure and Function All organisms have external parts.

Different animals use their body parts in different ways to see, hear, grasp objects, protect themselves, move from place to place, and seek, find, and take in food, water, and air. Plants also have different parts roots, stems, leaves, flowers, fruits that help them survive and grow. B: Growth and Development of Organisms Adult plants and animals can have young. In many kinds of animals, parents and the offspring themselves engage in behaviors that help the offspring to survive.

D: Information Processing Animals have body parts that capture and convey different kinds of information needed for growth and survival. Animals respond to these inputs with behaviors that help them survive. Plants also respond to some external inputs. Page 13 Share Cite. A: Inheritance of Traits Young animals are very much, but not exactly, like their parents. Plants also are very much, but not exactly, like their parents. B: Variation of Traits Individuals of the same kind of plant or animal are recognizable as similar but can also vary in many ways.

Page 14 Share Cite.