It also provides an update, more generally, to policy-makers, civil society and all those who derive their livelihood from fisheries and aquaculture, while covering a much broader range of issues affecting these sectors. This paper presents a major assessment and update since the last comprehensive review in FAO, It is an update on the state of world marine fishery resources provided in the most recent biennial updates for The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture FAO, While the general focus and outlay of previous major reviews have been maintained to the extent possible, several changes have been introduced in this volume in response to comments and suggestions received from copy and electronic Web-based publishing possibilities.
This review consists of four major components. The first part provides a global overview of marine fishery production and the state of marine fish resources Chapter A1. The final part lists all the tables that provide details about trends in catches and, where feasible, on the state of exploitation of stocks. Total world fish production was only Marine capture fisheries have always been the largest contributor to world fish production. In , marine captures were In the last two decades, marine and inland aquaculture has expanded rapidly, and the relative contribution of marine capture fisheries to the growing total world fish production has shrunk.
Marine fisheries have experienced different development stages, increasing from Global recorded production was Rapid development was seen in the late s and s and between and The second rapid expansion was associated with the extension of jurisdictions from 12 to nautical miles with the establishment of exclusive economic zones EEZs under the legal foundation of the UNCLOS Sanchirico and Willen, After reaching a peak in , global landings decreased gradually, dropping by about 10 percent by Subsequent fluctuations mainly reflect the variation in catches from a few highly productive areas, particularly in the Northwest Pacific Area 61 and the Southeast Pacific Area These areas account for a large portion of landings from pelagic species.
All other FAO areas contribute less than 5 percent of the global total catch. World marine fisheries have gone through significant development and changes since when FAO started collecting fisheries statistics data. Accordingly, the levels of exploitation of fish resources and their landings have also varied over time. The temporal pattern of landings differs from area to area, depending on the level of urban development and changes that countries surrounding that area have experienced. In general, they can be grouped into three types.
These areas provide about Some areas in this group may have shown a clear drop in total catch in the last few years, e. Northeast Pacific, but, over the longer period, a declining trend is not evident. The second group consists of areas that have demonstrated a decreasing trend in catch since reaching a peak at some time in the past. This group contributes It is interesting and noteworthy that such declines occurred at different times: in the Northwest Atlantic in the late s; in the Northeast and Southeast Atlantic in the mids; in the Western Central Atlantic and Mediterranean and Black Sea in the mids; and in the Southwest Pacific in the early s Figure A4.
This sequence largely reflects the fact that areas surrounded by the most-developed countries experienced the earliest decline in catches. The largest decline was seen in the Northwest Atlantic, where landings dropped by 55 percent from their peak to The second-largest drop was in the Western Central Atlantic with 46 percent, followed by the Southwest Pacific with 37 percent and the Northeast Atlantic with 35 percent. The total catches in the Mediterranean and Black Sea dropped by 28 percent.
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They have contributed As a result, the catch of this stock also usually oscillates in a similar manner. However, at a regional level, fluctuations in catch often appear to be less marked. This is because: i fish stocks within an ecosystem often compensate for one another as they increase and decrease in abundance; and ii aggregation over catches of all species usually smoothes out the variations of low-trophic-level and short-lived species.
This is because the abundance and catch of high-trophic-level and long-lived species often vary less. A drop of about 10 million tonnes occurred between and The fish stocks then recovered and produced an all-time high catch of more than 20 million tonnes in The catch from this area dropped by 12 million tonnes again in the subsequent five years between and and was at about 12 million tonnes in , almost as high as its first peak in The large interannual variation in catch from the Southeast Pacific is caused by the large proportion of pelagic species in catches from the area.
The top three species were anchoveta Engraulis ringens , Chilean jack mackerel Trachurus murphyi and South American pilchard or sardine Sardinops sagax ; together, they account for more than 80 percent of the current and historical catches. They have had alternating periods of high and low abundance in recent decades. These and other changes in fisheries production from Area 87 are described in further detail in Chapter B15 of this volume. Significant fluctuations were also reported for other regions, although their combined effect on global catches was less noticeable.
The Northwest Pacific has shown an oscillation between 20 and 24 million tonnes since the late s Figure A3. The fluctuations were caused by catch and, presumably, abundance changes of Japanese pilchard or sardine Sardinops melanostictus and Alaska pollock Theragra chalcogramma. These and other changes in total catch and state of resources are further described in Chapter B The catch was at a peak of about 2 million tonnes, probably because of the recovery of California pilchard or sardine Sardinops caeruleus.
They yielded 0. This previous peak period lasted from the lates throughout the earlys. The total landings of the Southwest Atlantic Chapter B6 have also fluctuated around 2 million tonnes since the late s Figure A3. Argentine hake, Argentine anchovy, Argentine short-fin squid and Argentine red shrimp are the species that show strong fluctuations in this area.
Temporal fluctuations in the landings of the second group declining landings are weaker Figure A4. The landings from the Northeast Atlantic Chapter B2 have continued the declining trend seen since the mids. This has mainly been caused by the decline in Atlantic cod Gadus morhua since the late s, with a bounce back in the s.
It is noteworthy that landings of blue whiting Micromesistius poutassou , which increased gradually since the s and reached a peak of about 2 million tonnes in , dropped back to below 1 million tonnes in Sandeels Ammodytes spp. In the Northwest Atlantic Area 21 , fish production declined to a low of 2 million tonnes in Figure A4 , following the collapse of groundfish stocks off eastern Canada.
However, the catch has since stabilized at about 2 million tonnes. The collapse in Atlantic cod in the s and of American plaice in the early s has been balanced out by the increase in catches of low-trophic- level species such as American sea scallop and American lobster. Large reductions in catches have been seen in the last decade for round sardinella, ocean catfish NEI not elsewhere included and requiem sharks NEI in the Western Central Atlantic, and for mullets, blue whiting and common octopus in the Mediterranean and Black Sea, and for blue grenadier and oreo dories NEI in the Southwest Pacific.
Of the three areas showing a continuously increasing trend in catch, the West Indian Ocean Area 51 and Western Central Pacific Area 71 have shown some signs of decline in the last few years Figure A5 , though these may be natural fluctuations. When examining this trend at the species level, large declines are clear for skipjack and yellowfin tuna, and for natantian decapods NEI in the West Indian Ocean.
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However, decreases in those species were balanced out by increases in the catches of other redfishes, Indian oil sardine, and giant tiger prawn. Standing out from all other areas, the East Indian Ocean is the only FAO area that has not shown any sign of decline in total catch, and no clear decline in catch has been seen in major fish species Chapter B9.
Tunas and tuna-like species are collectively the most valuable fishery resources exploited in the high seas. As discussed in Chapter C1, catches of tuna and tuna-like species increased from less than 0. The catch has stabilized at about 5. Among the species, skipjack tuna Katsuwonus pelamis accounts for about 47 percent, at 2. Yellowfin tuna contributed 20 percent of the catch 1.
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Total recorded catches from deep-sea fisheries reached a peak of about 3. The Atlantic Ocean supports the largest deep-sea fishery, contributing about 80 percent of the total deep-sea catch between and , followed by the Pacific Ocean and Indian Ocean.
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The dramatic decline can largely be attributed to the decrease in reported catches of blue whiting in the Atlantic Ocean. The catch of blue whiting decreased from 2. Patagonian grenadier, Greenland halibut, blue grenadier, southern blue whiting, orange roughy, and oreo dories NEI have all experienced clear declines in catch.
A recurring pattern in some areas is the medium- to long-term change in catch composition following the decline of some fish stocks that had traditionally been dominant. For example, in the Northwest Atlantic Chapter B1 , catches of molluscs and crustaceans have increased noticeably following the declines of demersal fishes.
In the Northeast Atlantic Chapter B2 the reduction in catches from the continuous decline in Atlantic cod since the late s has been balanced out by the increase in catches of formerly low-value species, such as blue whiting and sandeels. In the Northwest Pacific Chapter B10 , the decline in catches of Japanese pilchard or sardine and Alaska pollock has been somewhat offset by the increasing catches of Japanese anchovy Engraulis japonicus , largehead hairtail Trichiurus lepturus and squids mostly Todarodes pacificus.
Marine pollution can negatively impact fisheries by disrupting breeding or feeding areas, reducing reproduction, or introducing diseases. It is also a proxy for coastal development which disrupts marine habitat like seagrass beds and coral reefs. The Clean Waters goal measures pollution from chemicals, nutrients agriculture , pathogens, and trash including plastics in EEZ waters. Fisheries A critical component of food and economic security Fish are one of the last remaining wild sources of protein on the planet and they are a critical component of both food and economic security around the world.
Coastal tuna caught in Somali waters. Fisheries Health Sustainable fisheries are necessary for maritime security Wild fisheries support human health and livelihoods. Stock status for fisheries around the world. Reproduced from Figure 6a in Kleisner et al. Fish and Fisheries, 14 3 , — Foreign Fishing Fishing fleets from distant nations can undermine security in African waters The presence of foreign fishing vessels in EEZ waters can cause maritime insecurity and conflict. Coast Guard officers approach a suspect fishing vessel. Photo: Africom. Source: Agnew, et al, Estimating the Worldwide Extent of Illegal Fishing, PLoS One, 4 2 Illegal fishing occurs in contravention of local, national, regional, or international law and can include fishing with banned gear, in closed locations or seasons, or without proper permission.
Camara, Josephus Mamie, Jeremias F. Agnew, J. Pearce, G. Pramod, T. Peatman, R. Watson, J. Beddington, and T. Fisheries Legislation National efforts to protect a vital resource Minimizing conflict around fisheries requires strong national policies and resource governance, and most African states have enacted domestic fisheries legislation.
Mozambican armed forces simulate searching a fishing vessel suspected of illegal fishing in the Cutlass Express exercise. Photo: Tech. Chad Thompson. Roberts, Laura C. Burroughs, and Robert H. Regional Fisheries Management Organizations International cooperation addresses management of valuable highly migratory species Regional fisheries management organizations RFMOs are comprised of member states who have an interest in participating in shared management of fish stocks under the jurisdiction of an RFMO.
Image: Pew Charitable Trusts. Ocean Pollution Healthy fisheries require healthy oceans Ocean pollution affects fish stocks in a variety of ways. Plastic pollution fills a beach Photo: Belguebli Mohammed. Dumping in Somalia has long been alleged but difficult to prove. A series of reports in the s alleged vast inland toxic waste dumping by Italian and other European groups in Somalia. Several reports suggest waste also dumped at sea. Data and Methods How we created the Fisheries score The Fisheries Score incorporates five equally weighted components relevant to fisheries-related maritime insecurity and the health of fisheries: biological health of fish stocks, presence of foreign fishing vessels, strength of domestic fisheries law, membership in regional fisheries management organizations RFMOs , and ocean pollution.
Fisheries Health The health of fish stocks is an indicator of how sustainable and reliable the resource is for future harvest. Foreign Fishing The presence of foreign fishing vessels in EEZ waters can be a cause of maritime insecurity and conflict. Fisheries Legislation Strong domestic fisheries laws include clear directives for management, provisions for enforcement, and mandates for data collection that inform fisheries management plans. Regional Fisheries Management Organizations Governments that engage and collaborate with international fisheries bodies are more likely to adopt norms around fisheries management and scientific data collection.
Ocean Pollution Marine pollution can negatively impact fisheries by disrupting breeding or feeding areas, reducing reproduction, or introducing diseases. More details about all of these scores are available on our data page. Crab Krill Lobster Shrimp more Sea cucumbers Sea urchin more Commercial fishing World fish production Commercial species Fishing topics Fisheries glossary. Fisheries and fishing topic areas. Aquaculture Diversity of fish Fish diseases and parasites Fish farming Fisheries management Fisheries science Individual fishing quota Sustainable fishery Overfishing Wild fisheries.
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Carps , barbels and other cyprinids. Tilapias and other cichlids.