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There are four main themes in my research:. The number of words that can be described with a word formation rule varies substantially. For instance, in English, the number of words that end in the suffix -th e. The term 'morphological productivity' is generally used informally to refer to the number of words in use in a language community that a rule describes. For a proper understanding of the intriguing phenomenon of morphological productivity, I believe it is crucial to distinguish between a language-internal, structural factors, b processing factors, and c social and stylistic factors.

For a short review, see my contribution to the HSK handbook of corpus linguistics. Formal linguists tend to focus on a , psychologists on b , and neither like to think about c. Sociologists and anthropologists would probably only be interested in c. In order to make the rather fuzzy notion of quantity that is part of the concept of morphological productivity more precise, I have developed several quantitative measures based on conditional probabilities for assessing productivity Baayen , , Yearbook of Morphology.

These measures assess the outcome of all three kinds of factors mentioned above, and provide an objective starting point for interpretation given for the kind of materials sampled in the corpora from which they are calculated. In a paper in Language from , co-authored with Antoinette Renouf pdf , we show how these productivity measures shed light on the role of structural factors. Hay , Causes and Consequences of Word Structure, Routledge documented the importance of phonological processing factors, which are addressed for a large sample of English affixes in Hay and Baayen , Yearbook of Morphology, pdf as well as in Hay and Baayen in the Italian Journal of Linguistics pdf.

Social and stylistic factors seem to be at least equally important as the structural factors determining productivity, see, e. Hay and Plag , Natural Language and Linguistic Theory presented evidence that affix ordering in English is constrained by processing complexity. Complexity-based ordering theory holds that an affix that is more difficult to parse should occur closer to the stem than an affix this is easier to parse.

This result is related to the productivity paradox observed by Krott et al. More recently, however, a study surveying a broader range of affixes, co-authored with Ingo Plag and published in Language in pdf documented an inverse U-shaped functional relation between suffix ordering and processing costs in the visual lexical decision and word naming tasks.

Words with the least productive suffixed revealed, on average, the shortest latencies, and words with intermediate productivity the longest latencies. The most productive suffixes showed a small processing advantage compared to intermediately productive suffixes. This pattern of results may indicate a trade-off between storage and computation, with the costs of computation overriding the costs of storage only for the most productive suffixes. In terms of graph theory, complexity-based ordering theory holds that the directed graph of English suffixes is acyclic.

In a recent study, The directed compound graph of English An exploration of lexical connectivity and its processing consequences pdf , I showed that constituent order for two-constituent English compounds is also largely acyclic, with a similar violation rate as observed for affixes. The rank ordering for compounds, however, is not predictive at all for lexical processing costs.

This suggests that acyclicity is not necessarily the result of complexity-based constraints. What emerged as important for predicting processing costs in this study are graph-theoretical concepts such as membership of the strongly connected component of the compound graph, and the shortest path length of the head to the modifier. How do we understand and produce morphologically complex words such as hands and boathouse? The classical answer to this question is that we would use simple morphological rules, such as the rule adding an s to form the plural, or the rule allowing speakers to form compounds from nouns.

I have always been uncomfortable with this answer, as so much of what makes language such a wonderful vehicle for literature and poetry is the presence of all kinds of subtle and sometimes not so subtle irregularities. Often, a 'rule' captures a main trend in a field in which several probabilistic forces are at work. Furthermore, an appeal to rules raises the question of how these supposed rules would work, would be learned, and would be implemented in the brain.

Nevertheless, morphological rules enjoy tremendous popularity in formal linguistics, which tends to view the lexicon as the repository of the unpredictable. The dominant metaphor is that of the lexicon as a calculus, a set of elementary symbols and rules for combining those symbols into well-formed expressions. The lexicon would then be very similar to a pocket calculator. Irrespective of how often we would encounter the word hands , we would forget having seen, heard, or said the plural form.

All we would remember is having used the word hand. The problem with this theory is that the frequency with which a word is encountered in speech and writing co-determines the fine acoustic details with which it is pronounced, as well as how quickly we can understand it. For instance, Baayen, Dijkstra, and Schreuder published a study in the Journal of Memory and Language in pdf indicating that frequent plurals such as hands are read more quickly than infrequent plurals such as noses.

Baayen, McQueen, Dijkstra, and Schreuder, pdf later reported the same pattern of results for auditory comprehension. Further discussion of this issue can be found in a book chapter co-authored with Rob Schreuder, Nivja de Jong, and Andrea Krott from pdf. Even for speech production, there is evidence that the frequencies with which singulars and plurals are used co-determine the speed with which we pronounce nouns Baayen, Levelt, Schreuder, Ernestus, , pdf.

In recent studies using eye-tracking methodology, first fixation durations were shorter for more frequent compounds, even though the whole compound had not yet been scanned visually see Kuperman, Schreuder, Betram and Baayen, JEP:HPP, for English, pdf and Miwa, Libben, Dijkstra and Baayen submitted, available on request for Japanese. These early whole-word frequency effects are incompatible with pocket calculator theories, and with any theory positing that reading critically depends on an initial decomposition of the visual input into its constituents.

Lexical memory also turns out to be highly sensitive to the fine details of the acoustic signal and the probability distributions of these details, see, for instance, Kemps, Ernestus, Schreuder, and Baayen, Memory and Cognition, pdf. Work by Mark Pluymaekers, Mirjam Ernestus, and Victor Kuperman in the Journal of the Acoustical Society of America pdf and pdf indicates, furthermore, that the degree of affix reduction and assimilation in complex words correlates with frequency of use. Apparently, a word's specific frequency co-determines the fine details of its phonetic realization.

In summary, the metaphor of the brain working essentially as a pocket calculator is not very attractive in the light of what we now know about the sensitivity of our memories to frequency of use and to phonetic detail of individual words, even if they are completely regular. Given that our brains have detailed memories of regular complex words, it seems promising to view the mental lexicon as a large instance base of forms that serve as exemplars for analogical generalization. Exemplar theories typically assume that the memory capacity of the brain is so vast that individual forms are stored in memory, even when they are regular.

Exemplar theories can therefore easily accommodate the fact that regular complex words can have specific acoustic properties, and that their frequency of occurrence co-determines lexical processing.

by G.E. Booij (Editor), Jaap van Marle (Editor)

They also offer the advantage of being easy to implement computationally. In other words, in exemplar-based approaches to the lexicon, the lexicon is seen as a highly redundant, exquisite memory memory system, in which 'analogical rules' become, possibly highly local, generalizations over stored exemplars. Analogy a word detested by linguists believing in calculator-like rules can be formalized using well-validated techniques in statistics and machine learning.

These statistical and machine learning techniques turn out to work very well for phenomena that resist description in terms of rules, but where native speakers nevertheless have very clear intuitions about what the appropriate forms are. Krott, Schreuder and Baayen Linguistics, , pdf used TiMBL's nearest neighbor algorithm to solve the riddle of Dutch interfixes, Ernestus and Baayen studied several algorithms for understanding the subtle probabilistic aspects of the phenomenon of final devoicing in Dutch pdf and pdf.

Especially for compounds, a coherent pattern emerges for how probabilistic rules may work in languages such as English and Dutch. For compound stress, for interfixes, and, as shown by Cristina Gagne , for the interpretation of the semantic relation between modifier and head in a compound see Gagne and Shoben, JEP:LMC and subsequent work , the probability distribution of the possible choices given the modifier appears to be the key predictor.

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Books by Geert Booij

The importance of words' constituents as a domains of probabilistic generalization ties in well with results obtained on the morphological family size effect. Simple words that occur as a constituent in many other words in English, words such as mind, eye, fire are responded to more quickly in reading tasks than words that occur in only a few other words e. This effect, first observed for Dutch pdf , pdf , pdf has been replicated for English and typologically unrelated languages such as Hebrew, and Finnish pdf , pdf. Words with many paradigmatic connections to other words are processed faster, and these other words in turn constitute exemplar sets informing analogical generalization.

Although exemplar-based approaches to lexical processing are computationally very attractive, they come with their own share of problems. One question concerns the redundancy that comes with storing many very similar exemplars, a second question addresses the vast numbers of exemplars that may need to be stored. With respect to the first question, it is worth noting that any workable and working exemplar-based system, such as TiMBL, implements smart storage algorithms to alleviate the problem of looking up a particular exemplar in a very large instance base of exemplars.

In other words, in machine learning approaches, some form of data compression tends to be part of the computational enterprise. The second question, however, is more difficult to waive aside. Geert Booij red. Amsterdam: Huis aan de Drie Grachten. Geert Booij and Jaap van Marle eds. Lille, Presses Universitaires de Lille. Amsterdam: P. Kesselheim and S. Vol 1. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter. Geert Booij ed. The construction of words.

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Advances in Construction Morphology. Cham etc. Linguistics 24, , no. Geert Booij and Jeroen van de Weijer eds. Proceedings of HIL Phonology 3. The Hague: Holland Academic Graphics. Patras: University of Patras. Barcelona, September Papers from the Fourth Mediterranean Morphology Meeting. Catania, Sicily, September Catania: Univ. Patras: University of Patras, Greece. ISSN Special issue of Morphology 19 1 , In Richard B. Putnam eds.

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Booij Principles of word formation Germanic. To appear in Linguistics in the Netherlands To appear in a special issue of Word Structure 12 on higher order schemas in morphology, edited by Martin Hilpert. Geert Booij, Compounds and multi-words expressions in Dutch. Berlin: De Gruyter, Chapter 5 of Bernard Comrie ed. London and New York: Routledge. In Geert Booij ed. Studies in Morphology 4. Studies in Morphology, 4. Cham: Springer, Geert Booij, Phonology and the Dutch-Polish connection: a personal memoir. Berlin etc. Geert Booij, Inheritance and motivation in Construction Morphology.

In Nikolas Gisborne and Andrew Hippisley eds. Oxford: Oxford University Press, Geert Booij, Chapter The construction of words. In: Barbara Dancygier ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, Menscheln, kibbelen, sparkle : Verbal diminutives between grammar and lexicon. Linguistics in the Netherlands Amsterdam: Benjamins. Geert Booij, Construction Morphology. In Mark Aronoff ed. On line March Language 93, 3 , Oxford Handbook of Derivational morphology Lg. In Andrew Hippisley and Greg Stump eds.

Table of contents

Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, Chapter 16, p. Geert Booij, Dutch word formation. In Peter O. Word Formation. An International Handbook of the Languages of Europe. Geert Booij, Morphology: the structure of words. In Keith Allan ed. Geert Booij, review of Heinz J. Giegerich, Lexical structures. Compounding and the modules of grammar Edinburgh Studies in Theoretical Linguistics 1.

Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, English Language and Linguistics Jenny Audring and Geert Booij. Een joggende djellabah. De wendbaarheid van woorden. Onze Taal , Geert Booij, The nominalization of Dutch particle verbs: schema unification and second order schemas. Geert Booij, The structure of words. Chapter 11 of John Taylor ed. London: Equinox, Booij van der Veer Allomorphy Italian. Geert Booij, Word formation in Construction Grammar. Geert Booij and Francesca Masini, The role of second order schemas in the construction of complex words.

Semantics of complex words. Morphology 25, 2 , Geert Booij , Language use and the architecture of grammar: A Construction Morphology perspective. Booij Suvremena Lingvistika Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton, Folia Linguistica 42,2 , Hideki Kishimoto and Geert Booij , Complex negative adjectives in Japanese: the relation between syntactic and morphological constructions. Word Structure 7, Geert Booij , Morphological change.

New York: Oxford University Press. Geert Booij , Morphology in CxG. In Thomas Hoffmann and Graeme Trousdale eds. Geert Booij , Allomorphy and the architecture of grammar. Geert Booij , Construction Morphology and the interaction of syntax and word formation. Estudios ofrecidos a Soledad Varela Ortega. Geert Booij , Constructiemorfologie als morfologisch onderzoeksparadigma.

Nederlandse Taalkunde 17, Geert Booij , Construction morphology, a brief introduction. Morphology 22, Geert Booij , Staan alle woorden in Van Dale? Alles wat je altijd al had willen weten over taal. Amsterdam: Meulenhoff, Geert Booij , Morpheme structure constraints. Volume 4. Phonological interfaces. Oxford: Blackwell Chapter 86 , Geert Booij , Compound construction: Schemas or analogy? A Construction Morphology perspective. Geert Booij , Construction morphology.

Language and Linguistics Compass 4,7, Geert Booij , Constructions and lexical units: an analysis of Dutch numerals.

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In Susan Olsen ed. Geert Booij , Morphological analysis. In Bernd Heine and Heiko Narrog eds. Geert Booij , Lexical integrity as a morphological universal, a constructionist view. Geert Booij , A constructional analysis of quasi-incorporation in Dutch. Gengo Kenkyu , Geert Booij , Compounding and construction morphology.

In Rochelle Lieber and Pavol Stekauer eds. Jenny Audring en Geert Booij , Genus als probleemcategorie. Taal en Tongval , Themanummer 22 , Voor Ariane van Santen bij haar afscheid van de Leidse universiteit. Leiden: Stichting Neerlandistiek Leiden, Geert Booij , Phrasal names, a constructionist analysis. Word Structure 2, Paris: Peeters, Printed version: [ Booij Morphologie constructionelle printed version ].

Geert Booij , Hoofdzaken. In Egbert Beijk et al. Feestbundel Fons Moerdijk. Geert Booij , Construction morphology and the lexicon. Somerville: Cascadilla Press, In Alexander Bergs and Gabriele Diewald eds.

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Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, Geert Booij , Composition et morphologie des constructions. Artois: Artois Presses Universitaires, Geert Booij , Lexical storage and phonological change. Essays in Honor of Paul Kiparsky. Cambridge Mass. Geert Booij , Polysemy and Construction Morphology. Leiden: Instituut voor Nederlandse Lexicologie, Madrid: Instituto Universitario Ortega y Gasset. Geert Booij en Jenny Audring , Uitgezwaaid en aangezwaaid. Participiumconstructies in het Nederlands.

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What is morphology?

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